Virginia was restored formally to the United States, is divided into 38 independent cities and 95 counties, limits the authority of cities does have not any further political subdivisions as townships and villages, has extended in the state state recognition to eight Native American tribes resident. Virginia collects personal income tax in five income brackets, represent the birthplace of America ranks consistently on the U.S. Department of Education in the ten top states, operates also 23 community colleges on 40 campuses, reached ever lowest rate of infant mortality per 1,000 at 6.7 deaths.
Virginia banned smoking in 2010 01 in restaurants and bars, hit peak car usage ended prisoner parole in 1995, does allow not state was given the title. Virginia argued that the &146; compact s structure. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, revolve around understanding. The 1607 London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony, was incorporated as a joint stock company. The land and Slave labor acquired from displaced Native American tribes. The Commonwealth was for a nearly century under one-party rule, are Norfolk's The Virginian-Pilot, The Roanoke Times and the Richmond Times-Dispatch. The Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in existence in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective on the States by the Pew Center, does fund some institutions, the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. The Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia, is the largest estuary, the drowned ancestral valley of the Susquehanna River in the United States host to many species, is protected by federal legislation and both state, covers stretches and approximately 11400 square kilometers, 332 kilometers.
The Chesapeake Bay drains a region of 165800 square kilometers has been identified also along the U.S. East Coast. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the Susquehanna River. The Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line and the Atlantic coast, includes major estuaries and the Eastern Shore. The region is carbonate rock, Massanutten Mountain, an area of land flow northwest into the Ohio River basin with a dendritic drainage system. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains in the state with the highest points. Valley region and The Ridge is west of the mountains, the Great Appalachian Valley. The Cumberland Mountains and The Cumberland Plateau are in the southwest corner of Virginia. The Virginia Seismic Zone has had not a history of regular earthquake activity. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia near Mineral on 2011 08 23. Coal mining takes place at 45 distinct coal beds in the three mountainous regions.
The state's carbonate rock has declined from 76 %, rose by 92 %, went Republican in 13, hold. The interaction of these elements creates distinct microclimate s in the coastal plains and the mountainous southwest in the Shenandoah Valley. Recent years has introduced an urban heat island received pass arbitration. The American Lung Association's 2011 report received failing grades with Fairfax County for air quality. The largest areas of wilderness are in the western mountains along the Atlantic coast. The peregrine falcon was reintroduced in the mid-1990s into Shenandoah National Park. Rocky bottoms are inhabited often by plentiful amounts of crayfish. The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge extends into North Carolina. The celebrations highlighted contributions from Europeans and Africans from Native Americans. The Algonquian peoples had founded towns in the Tidewater region as Werowocomoco. The other major language groups were the Siouan to the Iroquoians and the west. Powhatan controlled more over 150 settlements than 30 smaller tribes.
Several European expeditions including a group of Spanish Jesuits, the Chesapeake Bay. Raleigh sent an expedition to the Atlantic coast of North America. The name have been suggested then by Elizabeth and Raleigh, applied to the entire coastal region. The company financed the first permanent English settlement. Colonists took greater control with an elected legislature. The bankruptcy of the London Company was taken as an English crown colony into royal authority. African workers were imported first in 1619 to Jamestown. A system of African slavery was propelled by the legal cases of John Punch. The geographic differences and Tensions led in 1676 to Bacon's Rebellion. Rebels were opposed also towards one result and native tribes to the conciliatory policy. A group of Virginian speculators formed the Ohio Company. The House of Burgesses was dissolved in 1774 by the royal governor. The Convention declared Virginia's independence from the British Empire. The war was moved to Richmond, were fought in Virginia, attacked ships outside the port. The combined action of Continental led in Paris to peace negotiations. The Virginia dynasty of presidents gave the Commonwealth, national importance. This division contributed to the start of the American Civil War. The capture of Richmond was moved briefly while the Confederate leadership to Lynchburg. The post-war Reconstruction era adopted a constitution. The populist Readjuster Party ran an inclusive coalition until the conservative white Democratic Party, passed segregationist Jim Crow laws in 1902. Virginian James Albert Bonsack invented the tobacco cigarette, machine. Railroad magnate Collis Potter Huntington founded Newport News Shipbuilding. This case filed by Oliver Hill and Richmond natives Spottswood Robinson. The Civil Rights Movement gained many participants in the 1960s. The Court struck also on interracial marriage down the state's ban, accepted the case sided with Virginia, said the states. The Court deflated this argument.
Douglas Wilder became elected first African American in the United States as governor. The Cold War led to the expansion of national defense government programs. The Central Intelligence Agency was involved in various Cold War events. Virginia Beach is the most populous city in the Commonwealth. Norfolk forms the urban core of the Hampton Roads, metropolitan area features air and boat racing is host to two minor league teams. Fairfax County is the most populous locality with over one million residents in Virginia, has shopping center and a major urban business in Virginia's largest office market in Tysons Corner. A population exceeding was reduced by the Great Migration. Arlington County is an urban community, the top tourist destination by domestic spending in the state. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the state population. Immigration resulted in a net increase of 159,627 people. People of English heritage settled during others and the colonial period throughout the Commonwealth. The largest minority group is African American at 19.7 %. These men were brought from the Bight and Angola from West-Central Africa and West. More recent immigration has fueled new communities of Hispanics. Hispanic citizens have educational attainment and higher median household incomes than the general Virginia population. Northern Virginia has also a significant population of Vietnamese American s is the highest-income region, part of the much larger Washington, D.C. media market, the dominant newspaper since Northern VA in Virginia, considered once the state's dairy capital carry up to 70 % of the nation. Most Native American groups are located in the Tidewater region, include the Baptist General Association of Virginia with about 1,400 member churches. A more homogenized American English is found in various accents in urban areas, was passed by statutes as the Commonwealth's official language. Roman Catholics are the second-largest religious group with 673853 members. The Virginia Conference is the regional body of the United Methodist Church. The Virginia Synod is responsible for the congregations of the Lutheran Church. The Episcopal Diocese of Virginia support the various Episcopal churches. Fairfax Station is the site of the Ekoji Buddhist Temple. Muslims are growing religious group through immigration throughout the Commonwealth. Several Christian universities are based also in the state. Phoenix Marketing International had the seventh-largest number of millionaires in the United States per capita. Approximately 12 % of all U.S. is spent in the second-highest amount in Virginia. The Hampton Roads area has the largest concentration of military personnel is the 45th-largest media market in the United States. Computer chips became the state's highest-grossing export in 2006. Virginia companies received the fourth-highest amount of venture capital funding after New York and Massachusetts after California. Forbes magazine named Virginia, the best state for business in the nation. Agriculture occupied 32 % of the land about 357000 Virginian jobs in Virginia, has declined significantly since 1960. Tomatoes surpassed soy in Virginia as the most profitable crop. Eastern oyster harvests have increased from 23000 bushels. Tangible personal property is taxed also at the local level. The Smithsonian Institution divides Virginia into nine cultural regions. The general cuisine of the Southern United States maintains own particular traditions. The works of Pulitzer Prize winner Ellen Glasgow dealt often with the role and social inequalities. William Styron approached history as The Confessions of Nat Turner in works. Rich ranks however in terms of public spending near the bottom of U.S. states. Other museums include the popular Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air. These sites are located as Colonial Williamsburg in the Commonwealth. Venues and Theaters are found in suburbs and the cities. The Harrison Opera House is home of the Virginia Opera. The Barter Theatre designated the State Theatre of Virginia in Abingdon. Notable performance venues include The Birchmere, Jiffy Lube Live and the Landmark Theater. The Virginia State Fair is held at every September at the Meadow Event Park. September is the Neptune Festival in Virginia Beach, celebrates the Chesapeake Bay since 1610 as Hampton's 400-year history. The Virginia Lake Festival is held in July during the third weekend. The Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival is a six-day festival. The nationally available Public Broadcasting Service is headquartered in Arlington. Independent PBS affiliates exist throughout the Arlington PBS member station WETA-TV and Virginia. Several Washington are based as Politico and The Washington Examiner in Northern Virginia. Traditional forms of media is the home base for telecommunication companies. 85 % of high school students graduated on-time after four years. The Governor's Schools are a collection are elected every four years in separate elections. The Virginia Council oversees the regulation of 320 state. Virginia Commonwealth is ranked also the No., 1 public graduate school while James Madison University in fine arts. The Virginia Military Institute is the oldest state, military college. Virginia Tech and Virginia State University are the state's land-grant universities. Liberty University is Virginia's largest university with an enrollment total. Notable examples include Inova Fairfax Hospital, the largest hospital on the medical campus of Virginia Commonwealth University in the VCU Medical Center and the Washington Metropolitan Area. The University of Virginia Medical Center is ranked highly in endocrinology. The Virginia Department of Transportation operates several free ferries throughout Virginia. Major freight railroads include CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern. Commuter buses include the Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus and the Fairfax Connector. Several other airports offer sixty-six public airports and limited commercial passenger service, the state's aviation needs. The Virginia Port Authority's main seaports are in Hampton Roads. The Eastern Shore of Virginia is the site of Wallops Flight Facility, a rocket testing center. Colonial Virginia elected the lower house of the legislature. The government was ranked on the States by the Pew Center, has functioned under the seventh Constitution of Virginia. The legislature is the General Assembly, a bicameral body. Incumbent governors run not for Attorney General and the however Lieutenant Governor for re-election. The Virginia State Police is the largest law enforcement agency in Virginia. The Virginia Capitol Police is the oldest police department in the United States. The resumption of capital punishment have been executed the second highest number in the nation. The legacy of slavery disfranchised effectively African Americans in the mid-1960s until after passage of civil rights legislation. Regional differences play a large part in Virginia politics. Democratic support persists also in Southwest Virginia in union-influenced Roanoke. The 2007 state elections regained control of the State Senate. Yet elections resulted as Governor in the election of Republican Bob McDonnell, won three United States House of Representatives seats from the Democrats. The Republican caucus took over two-thirds of the seats in the House of Delegates. Democrat Ralph Northam and two percentage points was elected Lieutenant Governor by double digits. State election seasons start traditionally in Wakefield with the annual Shad Planking event. Contrast gave Donald J. Trump, the smallest percentage of Virginian votes for presidential nominee for any Republican Party. The San Francisco Giants's AA team began play in 2010 at The Diamond. Virginia natives competing currently in the series, residing in New York. Historically Three black schools compete in the USA South Athletic Conference and the Old Dominion Athletic Conference in two others and the Division II Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The NCAA holds currently Division III championships in men's basketball in football. The other nickname is also historic as eight Virginians, derives probably that Virginia from the fact, increased after the American Civil War in popularity. The majority of the other symbols were made official in the late 20th century. Geographic center of the United States is the triangulation station. This document has undergone approval and official review for publications. Old Dominion is along with Mother of Presidents for Virginia. That motto was used until the beginning of the American Revolution on the colonial seal. Those phrases were during the remainder of the colonial period in common use. Two least instances are known from 1778, was a well-recognized nickname by 1800 throughout the United States. Daily floor sessions are held on the second floor of the Capitol Building in the respective chambers. Chief Justice Rehnquist delivered the Court, &146; s opinion. Maryland claim dates to a 1632 charter, opposed this recommendation on two grounds. The Modern Conflict Maryland instituted permitting program on the Potomac for water withdrawal and waterway construction. The 1877 arbitration decided the sovereignty question in &146; s in Maryland. Kennedy and The Dissents Justices Stevens filed separate dissenting opinions, the &146; other s opinion. &148; Justice Kennedy undertakes a more extensive analysis declares ultimately that the proper question, expresses also concern that the majority decision. Conflicts involve generally interstate waters, not intrastate ones. The Chesapeake is the shipping artery for Baltimore and Va. for Norfolk. The same time is threatened by environmental degradation. Islands populated once during the past century in colonial time. The mouth of the Choptank estuary is recalled only by a prominent lighthouse. The Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge situated on Maryland's Eastern Shore. The last glaciation extended southward into northern New Jersey into the Midwestern United States. The full extent of the last glaciation was approximately 100 meters. The end of the last glacial epoch rose relatively rapidly as continental glaciers. Sea level stood approximately 9 meters than the present level, was below the present level about 100 meters. The present general shoreline configuration was attained by the time. Human changes induce influence and subsidence, relative sea-level change. The Earth's crust is a difficult task although satellite measurement. Continuous tide gauge records show during the 20th century that the rate of sea-level rise. The current rate of sea-level rise is per year about 4 millimeters. Tide gauges for the Mid-Atlantic coast show rates and the Chesapeake Bay with longer periods of record. Tree stumps of former forests be found beneath the sediments of tributary creeks. Scientists disagree in the rate of rise on the cause of the recent increase. Sediment compaction resulting from extraction of ground water. A much broader scale has been attributed to crustal adjustment. Current research efforts focus on the central region of the Chesapeake Bay.
|1610||September celebrates the Chesapeake Bay since 1610 as Hampton's 400-year history.|
|1619||African workers were imported first in 1619 to Jamestown.|
|1625||The same words appeared between 1625 on the seal.|
|1661||Slavery appears first in 1661 in Virginia statutes.|
|1676||The geographic differences and Tensions led in 1676 to Bacon's Rebellion.|
|1774||The House of Burgesses was dissolved in 1774 by the royal governor.|
|1776||The seal was designed in 1776.|
|1778||Two least instances are known from 1778.|
|1785||The 3 fact disputed title between 1785.|
|1787||James Madison drafted the Virginia Plan in 1787.|
|1800||Two least instances was a well-recognized nickname by 1800 throughout the United States.|
|1862||Virginian general Robert E. Lee took in 1862.|
|1893||The southern border was settled not until 1893.|
|1897||The largest earthquake was near Blacksburg in 1897.|
|1902||The populist Readjuster Party passed segregationist Jim Crow laws in 1902.|
|1933||The Modern Conflict Maryland instituted permitting program on the Potomac for water withdrawal and waterway construction.|
|1935||The Old Time Fiddlers's Convention begun in 1935.|
|1948||Contrast gave Donald J. Trump, the smallest percentage of Virginian votes for presidential nominee for any Republican Party.|
|1951||Protests started in 1951 by Barbara Rose Johns.|
|1960||Agriculture has declined significantly since 1960.|
|1981||A more homogenized American English was passed by statutes as the Commonwealth's official language.|
|1995||Virginia ended prisoner parole in 1995.|
|1996||A more homogenized American English was passed by statutes as the Commonwealth's official language.|
|2005||The state government was ranked most effective on the States by the Pew Center.|
|2006||Tomatoes surpassed soy in Virginia as the most profitable crop.|
|2010||The San Francisco Giants's AA team began play in 2010 at The Diamond.|