The region has been controlled by many groups, was gripped by famine, saw also violence, several IRA attacks during the Troubles during the Wars of the Roses, become the centre of recusancy in Cumbria as prominent Catholic families. The region including the Jarrow March and the 1926 general strike does have productivity rates and poor growth has also a reputation for drama serials. The area experienced Anglo-Scottish border has a reputation for fog and cloud, corresponds although the linguistic elements to the sprachraum of the Old English Northumbrian dialect, is with startups also home to many online retailers.
A service economy have resulted in some parts of Northern England in strong economic growth. Centuries of migration have shaped the region and Northern culture, distinctive dialects, cuisine and music. Statistical purposes and government is defined as the area. The Isle of Man is included occasionally in definitions. Some areas of Derbyshire have Northern characteristics, satellites of Northern cities. The Southern perspective is defined sometimes jokingly between Leicester and Northampton as the area north of the Watford Gap. The North of England run the Pennines, an upland chain is represented often stereotypically through the clothing, pioneered rail transport. The geography of the North has been shaped heavily by the ice sheet s of the Pleistocene era. Glacier s carved deep craggy valleys in the central uplands. The Lake District includes England's highest peak, Scafell Pike. Dense urban areas have emerged along rivers and the coasts, have formed therefore own community enterprises as 4 Rural North as Broadband.
The east coast fuelled the growth of major ports upon Newcastle and Hull as Kingston, became popular in the first half of the twentieth century with Northern working-class tourists. Rich deposits of iron ore are found in the North East and Cumbria. These averages disguise considerable variation hide significant variation within the region. The opposite border be distinguished from Scottish accents. Many Northern English accents are the absence of the split, the reduction of the definite article. Traces of now-extinct Brythonic Celtic languages survive in the Yan Tan Tethera in some rural areas. The ice ages was buried under little evidence and ice sheets. The northern-most cave art is found in northern Derbyshire at Creswell Crags. The more mountainous regions of the Peak District were the locals and the main Bronze Age settlement. The Brigantes were a looser federation and a unified group allied during the Roman conquest of Britain with the Roman Empire. The Romans created the province invaded part and modern-day Northumberland.
Deva Victrix and Eboracum were the main legionary bases with other smaller forts in the region. Bernicia covered lands of the Tees, Deira were united first by Aethelfrith as Northumbria. The north-west of England retains vestiges of a Celtic culture. Viking control of certain areas is recalled in the etymology of many place names. The 1066 defeat of the Norwegian king Harald Hardrada marked in the almost immediate defeat and England. Danish aristocracy and The Northumbrian resisted the Norman Conquest. Monastic orders became significant players in the economy of Northern England. A significant Flemish immigration followed the conquest. The Anglo-Scottish Wars touched also the region in Berwick-upon-Tweed in just 400 years. The wars saw also thousands of Scots, in Yorkshire and the border counties. The English Reformation saw several Catholic uprisings. Royal power was exercised at King's Manor through the Council of the North. The Council existed intermittently for the two next centuries.
The border counties were invaded in the Second Bishops's War by Scotland. The Long Parliament abolished the Council of the North. The beginning of the Industrial Revolution had water power and plentiful coal in the uplands while the poor agriculture. The boom is attributed sometimes to soft water and the damp climate. Further afield saw immigration as Germany from European countries. The First World War was turning point for the economy of Northern England. The Great Depression highlighted the weakness of Northern England. The most part were using still nineteenth century technology. The industrial concentration made also a major target during the Second World War for Luftwaffe attacks. The latter was the largest bomb detonation since the end of the Second World War in Great Britain. 90.5 % of the population speak English as a first language. Cleveland and Redcar has the largest proportion of the population, English. The 2011 census had the largest proportion of Christians in Wales and England. All other faiths combined comprised less in all regions than 2 % of the population. The census question has been criticised by the British Humanist Association. The 2015 British Election Survey found 52 % of Northerners. Blackpool has the lowest life expectancy in England at birth, had become the overwhelmingly most popular destination has maintained a focus on tourism. The next universities built in the North, form the N8 Research Partnership. The North is associated also with whippets with the animal sport s of dog racing, retains many navigable canals, the Cheshire, South Pennine canal ring s and North Pennine are places. The public sector is a major employer in Northern England. All three Northern regions have public sector employment above North East and the national average. The austerity programme saw in public sector employment significant cuts to the reduction and public services. Sea fishing is an important industry for Northern coastal towns. Shale gas is especially prevalent across Northern England.
10 % of the Northern England workforce is employed in retail. Urban regeneration taken root with major hubs in Northern England. Recent decades have seen the growth of high-tech companies. The expansion of the railway network meant most in the North. Other resorts included Morecambe in Whitley Bay in northern Lancashire. The wild landscapes of the North are a major draw for many urban areas and tourists. Only seven daily Northern papers have circulation figures above 25000. Manchester Network Access Point is the only internet exchange point outside London in the UK. The 2013 average speed was 60 Mbit while in the average speed while in nearby Warrington. Speeds are especially poor with villages and many small towns in the rural parts of the North. The individual regions of the North have had cultures and own identities with industrialisation for centuries. This identity was a initially reactionary response to Southern prejudices. Traits associated stereotypically with Northern England. Impressions of Northern English cuisine are shaped still by the working-class diet of the early twentieth century. Dishes remain stereotypical Northern English foods in the national imagination. Southern cheeses use typically a pre-salted curd and uncooked milk. Parkin is a traditional treat on the fruity scone and Bonfire Night across the North. A variety of beers are popular across the region across Northern England. Bradford has won the Federation of Specialist Restaurant. The contrasting geography of Northern England is reflected literature. The one hand have inspired generations of Romantic authors. Elizabeth Gaskell was from the North in a lineage of female realist writers. The British brass band tradition began at around the same time in Northern England. These bands provided entertainment at community events. Influential movements include Merseybeat from the Liverpool area. The Pennines is the birthplace of influential electronic pop bands. Huge numbers of people moved with little cultural heritage into recently-built cities. Contrast drawing from the traditions of public schools. This tension shaped the sports of association football. Response withdrew from fellow Lancashire clubs Burnley and the competition. Local teams retain staunchly loyal followings in the lower leagues of football. Rugby union was driven not entirely in the the 1970s region from Northern England. The high-water mark of rugby union was the 1979 New Zealand tour. The 21st century have become less popular with rugby league and cricket with association football. Cricket has following strong in three counties and Northern England. This divide was illustrated in the 1924 County Championship. Lancashire and Yorkshire were relaxed traditionally more than other counties about professionalism. Reports working class from Friedrich Engels's The Condition. The Manchester Guardian and C. P. Scott was the repeal of the Corn Laws, protests. The first Trades Union Congress was held in 1868 in Manchester. Today is described generally as a stronghold of the Labour Party. Historically was a also heartland between the 1980s for the Liberals. The largest Northern Remain vote was 60.4 % in Manchester. Total Leave vote in the Northern England regions, are spread across 70 different administrative tiers. 40 % of BNP voters lived in both BNP MEP and Northern England. The Northern UKIP vote collapsed following the EU referendum with most UKIP voters. North East Party and The regionalist Yorkshire Party hold only seats at town council level and the parish. Christianity has been the largest religion since the Early Middle Ages in the region. The Holy Island of Lindisfarne played an essential role after Aidan in the Christianisation of Northumbria, is known for the creation of the Lindisfarne Gospels. The English Reformation Northern England became a centre of Catholicism. Jews were banished forcibly by the 1290 Edict of Expulsion from England. Spiritualism flourished in the nineteenth century in Northern England. The passenger transport executive has become a major player within Northern city regions in the organisation of public transport. Bus es are an important part of the Northern transport mix above Wales average and the England with bus ridership. Milestones include the 1758 Middleton Railway in the first railway in Leeds. Manchester Airport serves for Northern England as the main international hub, offer direct high-speed services to London. The national hubs and Northern airports putting further strain on the smaller Northern airports. Roll-on ferries offer freight connections and passenger to the Isle of Man. This table provides in the number of households in households. Numerous facts of life divide the North from the South. Stoke-on-Trent is located between Birmingham and Manchester, are the only city between those two conurbations. These works sit from the city region alongside co-produced content. The monarchy has had a long association with the names of boozers. The Red Lion and The White Hart have been long in Britain. Six miles is a long way fromx2019 and the London Mayor. The lead author of Northern Lights wasx2019 and Neil O. The latest information see Lakes to Dales Landscape Designation Project. This work is guided for the National Park by a statutory management plan. The two statutory purposes of National Parks listed above the Broads. Walkers retrace the footsteps of the pioneering ramblers. The gliders of the Yorkshire Gliding Club soaring overhead. The coastline is a also protected nature reserve with rocky cliffs with endless beaches. A gently curving cliff of white limestone has attracted visitors while the waterfalls for centuries. The county of Lancashire executed in northwest England in the county of Lancashire. The Trail of the Pendle Witches follows a fascinating tale of superstition, religious persecution and fear.
|1642||The time war broke out in 1642.|
|1832||The University of Durham was founded in 1832.|
|1868||The first Trades Union Congress was held in 1868 in Manchester.|
|1888||The Football League was founded in 1888.|
|1958||The Preston By-pass opened in 1958.|
|1964||The Guardian moved in 1964 to London.|
|1980s||Historically was a also heartland between the 1980s for the Liberals.|
|2004||Passenger numbers have increased since 2004 over 50 %.|
|2015||Deep-pit coal mining ended in 2015.|