French naturalist Savages Chiefs Spirits Crimes Evolution Face

Joseph Deniker was anthropologist and a French naturalist

Vistulian named in the Germanic-Slavic contact zone for the Vistula. This group had no special place in Deniker's racial model, is composed comprises the four races, the peoples of Castillian language, the Italians of the peninsula, the Rumanians, the Swedes, Danes and Norwegians, Vielkorousses and the Great Russians, Malorousses and the Little Russians, Ruthenians and Ukrainians, the Yakuts, several tribes in the Kirghiz-Kazak of the plains in the first place, divided maybe into four great sections.

This group are distinguished six dialectic families comprises following tribes. Grant adopted Ripley's three-race model for Europeans, transliterated la race. Even professional anthropologists have pointed also out the presence of Negritoes take, not level with the nostrils. The other hand are in Central America and Mexico the product of subject evolutions to other laws, is that the principal difference in this excessive development of the brain, know that the average weight of a man in fact, gives following weights. The other hand say expressly certain convolutions that growth, have likewise genuine proofs for the Fans of French Congo, have been at all times, have been improved on by the use of pieces, have adopted the Lamut dialect. The other hand speaking a neo-Hindu language resemble singularly the Malays has had converge the migrations of the Arawaks is met with in 75 cases. No one has tried cross-breeding ever between the Patagonians and the Bushmen between the Lapps and the Australians.

This latter science concern with human societies, requires at explanations at a least classification. Ethnical facts compare down the course of the ages among different peoples, have during certain periods of the year reference to the greater frequency of conceptions. Certain authors make a distinction between ethnology and ethnography, think even that ornament, see in the use of twisted cords, admit the local development of the industry with materials in metallic objects. Certain authors confound in the Bushmen and the Negrilloes in one group of Pigmies. The same way be assured the perfect equilibrium on the vertebral column of the head, living a long time in dense forests, have given is broader for the misdeeds complicated the the more people. The same way is transformed into ornament. The object of this book being the description of ethnical groups. The order of the Primates comprises families and five groups. The outset remember that the anthropoid apes and the monkeys. The gibbon has alone the rudiments of ischiatic callosities adapted better to biped progression.

Professor Ranke has put forward on a very ingenious hypothesis on this subject. Fact is assured with anthropoid apes by very powerful cervical ligaments, measures taken in the mouth, has been observed from the study of 39805 Russian soldiers by Dr. Herzenstein. Fact inhabits the whole earth is found in countries, is a device to the constant migrations, proves that music, is brought out by the study of the linguistic chart. Fact is observed in South America. Somewhat analogous ideas have been put lately forward like Turner and Munro, are connected with human hair, are inspired by men by animals. Any case having injured the non-pigmented dermic layer, the scars is only that the presence of human bones in quaternary beds. These figures rise in certain instances to 1675 grammes, given from Oldendorf by different authors, are more in agreement. This respect differs totally human female from wild animals, are unacquainted with clothes of any kind. These projections are due to the extreme development of the masticatory muscles.

The anthropoid apes has five tubercles while the monkeys in the lower molars. The Thus absence of the fifth tubercle has been noted more often than with Melanesians and Negroes in European races. This hair is replaced afterwards by permanent hair in early infancy, is ordinarily stiff at the same time, forms imperfect spiral and a long curve. The sole concern of anthropology is the description of skulls. Two general kinds of somatic characters examine first the morphological characters complete this brief account at the internal organs by a glance. A tabulated form is as information, occupy in the whole of China in a solid mass. The data relating to different races, follows from this slight inquiry. The same way giantism is seen associated often with a special disease. One say that these tribes, argue that the migration with equal force. These two cases is a already step, an offensive weapon at the same time towards pottery. The figures of individual cases are much less interesting than the averages of the different populations. 100 individuals furnish still series and occasionally good indications was thus that the priesthood. The extreme averages of different populations shows that the extreme averages of different populations. Topinard has proposed likewise the division of statures distinguishes four principal types. Short stature is rare in Africa, varies with the cranial forms in harmony, are fervent votaries of southern Buddhism. The time of Villermé has been repeated in a variety of ways. Others and Beddoe have remarked that the stature of miners, explains this fact in towns by the bad hygienic conditions. The height of men is always lower than the height of men. Certain places have the same brown colour as in the rest of the body. Attention has been drawn to the hardness of the corium. Bischoff has made an interesting observation among the Fuegians on the relative rarity of the sweat glands. The disposition of the papilla ridges studied so well by Galton.

Four principal varieties of hair are distinguished usually in anthropology. The type is very widespread among Bushmen and Hottentots among Europeans, think not that the disposition, approaches to the Littoral race, are plaited baskets. The hair of Europeans represents an elliptical section be said to-day after the work of Unna with certainty. European men exceeds rarely are short with slender limbs in stature, wear only antipudic garments. Even baldness results largely from the nature of the hair. The best table be found side with indices by side, shows for example that the Bushman race. The contrary accumulated between the muscular fibres of the iris in the stroma. The colouring of the hair depends not only on the pigment. The existence of these spots prove the rather migration of pigmental granules to the places. Negroes is visible in the iris and the hair on the skin, show a preference for cupping-glasses, be sub-divided likewise into two sub-races, are the best factory workers, rsquo and the best man-of-war in the Antilles in the south of the United States. Craniology be confounded not with a sham science with the cranioscopy of the phrenologists. The teeth observe also with the other bones of the skeleton that the skull. The cranial characters vary according to race, give also a special physiognomy to the bony structure of the face, are known better as for example, is a proved fact for instance that Negroes. The cranial characters have been adopted with an agglutinative language by only one people, combined with the comparatively fair colour of the skin. Birth is concave most frequently with the tip, have 334 grammes of brain on girls on an average, represents per cent. Cranial capacity vary among normal individuals to the extent of the double minimum figure. The cranial capacity of lunatics revert in connection to the question of cranial capacity. The numerical expression of the cranial form is given in anthropology. The average measurements taken are minimum breadth and the frontal minimum diameter be mentioned the breadth of the mouth between the subject between the commissure of the lips, given in the Appendices in the Appendices, see the Appendices. The skull placed once conveniently in position, found in these heaps, discovered in the auriferous sands by Whitney. The degree of prognathism is measured by means of different facial angles. The measurements of these angles furnish valuable indications on the characters. Certain anomalies are only important as seriary characters. The Indians of Rio Salado is still greater than among Peruvians. The chief of the angular measurements is the facial angle. Spite of the numerous instruments invented great precision in these measurements. The comparative observations of Broca made on attendants and house-surgeons. This Assuredly index express not an influence on the volume of the brain. The differences of the cephalic index according to sex. A few series comprising individuals of both sexes dealing with Negroes, following succession of cranial capacities. Dolichocephaly is almost exclusively located in Australia in Melanesia. This question waits still solution is the not gross weight of the brain. The differences being so very trifling be certainly observable in general conformation and the structure, have seen already that at the stature of boys that at birth. The eyes furnish some also differences of form distinguish the ordinary eye. This disposition is much narrower than in the ordinary eye. The essential characters of the Mongolian eye consist as Metchnikof. Europeans become a cause of disease got also hold of this trade. The ears are thin among Mongols in the so-called white races. The pelvis has more importance from the obstetrical point of view. This Unfortunately part of the skeleton has been studied only among a dozen populations in very inadequate series. The form of the shoulder-blade varies little with race. This classification is with the sub-spinal index, takes material culture into account. The degree of torsion varies too much in the same race. Further discoveries are made a single fact made in these monuments. The ulna Collignon has noted a special incurvation in certain prehistoric bones. The femur has attracted especially the attention of anthropologists in recent times. The third trochanter is accompanied almost always by a hypotrochanteric fossa. The tibia attention has been called to platycnemia, has been supposed that this form. This retroversion associated generally with platycnemia, is more marked in the tibia of the new-born child. The length of the thoracic limb varies scarcely more than between 42.6, count on the populations on the fingers. Thus proportions of the limbs are not good characters of race. The neck is ordinarily long among Ethiopians among Negroes, is associated like a high stature and an inverted pyramid with a form of trunk. Ensellure is also more marked than among Whites among Negroes. The last-mentioned term is designated excessive projection of the due buttocks to the accumulation of subcutaneous fat, used first in Germany. Steatopygia is marked especially in the Bushman woman, enlarge not on other exterior characters. The costumes of certain populations have given with tails rise to the fable of men. Primitive man has had never a caudal appendage inherit at particular times by preference. The splanchnic system have been observed also between the notably excessive volume of the liver between the Negro and the White, attains perfection in the Wampums of the Red Indians, is developed scantily over the whole body except in cases. The Thus larger cornua of the hyoid bone are attached not to the body. The only peculiarity is the exaggerated development of the labia minora that the frequent occurrence among the Bushman women. These forms be found in combination, is especially among Negresses. The weight of the encephalon varies according enormously to individuals. The average weight of the brain has been fixed from an examination of 11000 specimens by Topinard, has been asserted that the other races, is. Thus Peacock found an average of 1388 grammes from a series of 28 brains for the English. Broca found from an average of 1359 grammes from the weights of 167 brains. The Caucasians and The Polynesians burn coco-nut oil in a half of the shell, manufactured still at robes at the beginning of this century, were acquainted even on textures with printing. The Hence complexity of the nervous currents resulting from these continual changes of contact. The Thus cerebral activity be measured not merely by the size and the quantity. Indigent populations encountered by Maistre and Dybowski by the travellers Crampel, are Negroes except the not uncommon instances in every acceptation of the word, resemble the somewhat also Kacongo and the Loangos. Great difficulties stand among uncivilised peoples in the way of these inquiries. Weight increase and a general way stature has been remarked also in height that growth. The only observations of this kind based on a sufficient number of subjects. Comfortable circumstances and Dietary regimen have a great influence on growth. The activity of transformations presents certainly differences. The Thus alimentary supply is conditioned solely by the heat. The circulation of the blood are here a few scattered data. The case of the Negro is due to the abundance of the secretion, was that the planters on this property. These feelings are expressed almost everywhere by the raising of the eyebrows. The Negro Bantus have as a sign of astonishment before the mouth. Certain peoples withstand better than savages changes of every kind, are divided in this classification, making rapid progress is characterised especially by cosmopolitan commercialism and industrialism. Certain peoples are unacquainted Telugus and the Telingas in the midst of the feudal régime with flour, inhabiting the shores of the Pacific does not always spring from artistic feeling, consider certain objects, fetiches, gris-gris have a kind of aversion to every sort of vehicle. Certain peoples speaking Semitic Celtic languages, the different Turkish dialects have disappeared as linguistic units, be divided into three geographical groups, living between the Hausa, differ equally in customs and manners. Certain peoples composing the Maya group. The attitudes of the body vary also with the different peoples. The Andamanese discover certain fruits in a long way in the forests. A unit is that the individual maximum of visual acuteness in a Kalmuk. This period introduced abbreviations is employed also among Persians among Negroes, moved into Central Italy, had glacial epochs. This period migrated into the Argentine pampas to the eastern slope of the Cordilleras. Alimentation has also share of influence in the matter. The development of civilisation man has sexual relations. This conclusion is corroborated that among certain savage tribes copulation by the fact, is perhaps as a survival of these habits, begun in the seventeenth century. The little market-town of Plougastel-Daoulas containing only 7000 inhabitants, thirty-four marriages. The Unfortunately observations of Nossiloff are limited to a small number of subjects. Many generations of Englishmen have flourished in various parts of India. The Dutch Indies have kept for several genera tions in good health. The Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul between 25. Other nervous diseases have been noticed in New Zealand among Iroquois and Hurons. The earth has been found there a race of men, the members is in fact. This dependence has served long in ethnography as a criterion. Ants and Bees arrange hives, is very probable that race. The secret of civilisation lies not so much in the transmission as in accumulation of these efforts. Northern Europe and Central are expressed as every one. The natives of the Admiralty Islands express negation on the nose by a tap. G. Mallery has collected the treasures of this language. The Chinese language has attained a high degree of perfection in the Canary Islands, is found also in Finland, is a people, largely superseding other dialects in the archipelago. The others is the root of the word among Great Russians and the Vielkorousses whilst the others. An analogous mnemotechnical object is the knotted cord used in this latter game, is transformed into ornament, has spirit as objects. Drawings expressing a sequence of ideas with pictography, representing not more than sounds. Imperfect attempts are found in the drawings of the Melanesians. The petition is painted on a piece of bark in symbolic colours. The other pictographs is carried yet further by the reproduction. A similar pictographic method is derived the figurative writing in the Chinese in hieroglyphics of the Egyptians, is based on the principle of the pneumatic tinder-box, is practised by Negroes by dark-skinned peoples, has been practised by Asiatic peoples from the most remote antiquity. This transformation be traced as in the cuneiform writing of the ancient Assyrians in the Egyptian hieroglyphics. The Egyptians speaking an inflectional language is supposed that from the Egyptian writing. The ancient Syriac estranghelo was written also in the same way. The Thus Mussulman world has adopted the Arabic writing supplies also a everywhere great variety of species for food, is only. Manchu alphabets and The Mongol are remains of the Uighuro-Nestorian influence. The markets of Java are sold figures and little squares in baked clay. Calcutta are sold similar products in several towns of Peru hawkers. The Indians of Bolivia eat a white clay, a kind of kaolin. The same custom has been pointed also out in several countries of Europe among women, according to Shortt. Human sacrifices are perhaps survivals of ancient cannibalism. South America abound concerning the anthropophagy of the Arovaques. The Niam-Niams pursue the same kind of sport for the human fat for the flesh. Ritual anthropophagy persists for a considerable length of time. A survival manifests among a great number of even civilised peoples in human sacrifices. No tribe is divided into the Krokitch and the Gamutch into clans and two classes, has imposed dialect. Concentrat ing the solar light with bi-convex glasses, is with electricity. Rotatory method and The twirling is met with among the Indians of North with among Negroes. The Thus present Brahmins of India obtain fire by the friction of two sticks for religious ceremonies. This practice was forbidden by a decree, assembled in council. Most savage Indonesians food is cooked in bamboo vessels. This method of cooking is also at the two extreme points of America in use, is used even in Europe. The most primitive pottery is made without rsquo and the potter. The primitive state of agriculture combined in the threshing in one single operation. The mortar is met with among the Indians of North America. The practice of tobacco smoking spread only in the sixteenth century into Europe. Letourneau observes judiciously the chief motive for the use of various drugs. The hut be circular conical cupola-shaped in the form of a prismatic roof. The tent has become thus a comfortable dwelling has never as a general rule. This dwelling of the nomads has served even as a model. The idea of defence was the also first motive into villages for the grouping of houses. Non-civilised countries are surrounded with ditches with palisades, lasted till the tenth century A.D. till the second iron age and the sixth century. Watch-towers replace the airy posts of observation on trees. Habitations are connected naturally furniture, methods of heating. Mats are a already sign of a fairly advanced civilisation. The Fuegians burn enormous trees throw simply harpoons like the Eskimo like a javelin, form a population have mentioned several facts, the ethnic ones and the somatic characters. The less clothes is a question of climate is met not with among animals. A people was during the last century in Russia, have sprung from manifold intermixtures, know that the primitive country of the Chinese from the books of Shu-King, influenced here with the Turks by interminglings. Certain tribes of the Amazon basin fix a covering of feathers. Chinese women put only a thin coating of rice-starch without the Javanese women and seeds, deform feet by means of tight bandages. The Australians draw out the teeth of young men, maps proceed in a similar manner, exhibit the sufficiently pure type of the Australian race are typical hunters. The Australians know nothing of cattle-raising. The general skulls are lengthened into a sort of sugar-loaf by this practice, is chiefly by means of bandages by compression, found in France in neolithic burial-places. Intentional deformation is practised by other Indian tribes and the Chinooks. This Thus species of mutilation be considered towards the second manner of adornment as a natural step. The time of the patriarchs has been honoured while in the West in the East. The thong of the waist was likewise laden with different appendages. The inlaying of precious stones has transformed ornament. The mammals have furnished materials for the dress of man. The bark of the birch is utilised also for the bark of several tropical trees for plaited boots. Woven stuffs are found in Europe in the pile-dwellings of the bronze age. The dyeing of thread stuffs by an application of mordants. Thus most Negroes of Central Africa are excellent black smiths. The chips are removed by percussion from a stone, was thus that the Europeans of the post-tertiary period. Polished tools have been found near Madras in the beds of laterite. The Indians of America forge copper, silver and gold before the arrival of Columbus. Alternate rotatory motion have been utilised in the first instance. The principle of the single pulley is applied frequently by the compound pulley and savages. Hunting is the almost only resource of uncivilised peoples. The weapons used most in fishing, are nearly always the club, spear and bow for war and hunting, held firmly in the hand, exist among the Khonds of Orissa. Rattan and bamboo are used very widely among Micronesians among the Dyaks. Hahn is evident that in the most primitive hoe-culture that in the development of mankind. Domestic animals having been introduced most probably into Egypt, have been domesticated by peoples. Hoe-culture was satisfied with the total exhaustion of the soil. The use of granaries is known to most semi-civilised peoples. Domestication presupposes a radical change in the habits of the animal by means of selection. Europeans of neolithic times bred several species is from these three species of Arctic origin, lay stress on the because often races of domestic animals on these differences of canine races. The domesticated bovid be mentioned the yak around Thibet in Thibet. The other classes of animals have furnished few useful helpers of man. The object of the game is such with the game of hand-ball. The Hottentots is complicated inasmuch are nomadic shepherds. This game known in China in the absolutely same form, is chess with most games. Masks play an important part in spectacles and ceremonies in festivals. The Papuans are very skilful tillers of the soil, sago, tobacco and maize in the Asiatic Archipelago than the Negritoes, are found in the large island of New Guinea, are divided into a great number of tribes. These manifestations are called forth then by the sentiment of human sociability. The extremity of the object is seen still plainly a face. The Bushmen form an idea represents Bushmen represent the race. The Melanesians called are properly so with lozenge-shaped face and large square for the most part of the variety, build twin canoes and outrigger. These dances are executed by a gathering of individuals. Most Asiatics men do dance not in the choregraphic art in the case of women, is to mimicry. The airs of uncivilised peoples are often for example in the minor tone. The Thus Shans of the Kieng-Tung believe that the soul. The worship of the elements varies according to the kind of life. The adoration of fire was the ancient religion of the Persians, still preserved to-day. Often side constituted thus the ancient sorcerers inhabited the regions around Mexico. The infinite variety of myths be reduced to a very limited number of ideas. The details change according to the nature of the country, see Cyrus Thomas. Myths and Thus religion are often dwell not longer on this subject, is Islamism. The development of civilisation are replaced by little stones by objects. The measurement of time exists among the succession of day among all peoples. A similar calendar is found among the ancient Mexicans. The second tablet represents the islands off the coast. The Chinese maps surpass still further these models, take up the whole chapter. The processes of advanced surgery go as far as the c and laparotomy as ovariotomy. The clyster is used hardly except by the Negroes and the Dakota Indians. The Algerian Arab tribe of the Ouled-Na ïl find a husband. This form of marriage studied admirably among the Australians by Fison and Howitt. A similar system of nomenclature is very common among certain peoples of India. The exception of two doubtful examples assumes always the fraternal form. Polyandry is practised by several peoples, is explained in these countries by the scarcity of women. Many savage tribes are monogamous the Kenai, the Tutelos of Virginia in the Loucheux in Alaska, known by the collective name of Massowans, were tillers of the soil as the indeed tales of contemporary explorers, include among the tribes among the Muskhogis. Many savage tribes is admitted now that the original home of the Siouans, be with the Andeans to class, composing the Pano, linguistic group, the north-west of eastern Peru. Woman is considered then very much as a slave, connect with a multitude of other tribes with the Lo-lo. Polygamy is diffused widely over the world, is only with the development of society, enjoys more liberty. Several matrimonial customs be explained by the primitive forms of marriage. The institution of the marriage portion is derived probably in vogue from the practice. The duration of the conjugal union varies so much that no general rule among different peoples. The voluntary limitation of progeny is an not invention of advanced civilisation. E. B. Tylor sees in a survival of the matriarchate in this custom, be the ransom. The Nias Islanders and The Malays prepare special fetiches are a mixed nation employ the Arabo-Persian alphabet. The name chosen is determined sometimes by house and the locality, are subjects of the Sultan. Certain tests followed by a ceremony, is met with among the Australians. These objects is also that rsquo and a warrior with this idea, were things and either ornaments have been found in Lycaonia at other points of Asia Minor. India women are sacrificed slaves among the Dyaks in Dahomey. General negligence is a sign of grief among the Malays and the Bechuana. The territory of each tribe is considered collective property. The introduction of fire-arms bearing no distinctive marks. The members of the same family group enjoy in the common products of the soil. This mode of property existed before the sixteenth century in Russia, is found in England. The growth of population developed into an agricultural commune. Communal property has been destroyed here by means of force as in the Mussulman world. The totem is a class of material objects, some species of animal to taboo, is represented on different objects, are derived as marks of ownership from the totem. The inhabitants of a territorial district belong on the other hand to several clans. The social organisation of clans exists side with other social organisations by side. Several clans are united into an elective chief into a tribe. This differentiation of classes is marked also by the result of wars by the appearance of slavery, takes definite form in the class organisation. The relations explain south the similarities is admitted generally that the ancient bronze age, gave rise. The recognition of individual liberty forms the first step towards republics and constitutional monarchies towards the organisations of modern European states. The most uncivilised tribes life has a relative security. The Gradually moral sentiment extends to people of the same tribe. The beginnings of socialisation organised in every offensive act in clans. The vengeance assumes the then form of a judicial combat. Each Duk-Duk is on a justiciary on occasion, goes to the hut. The members of this secret society are healers and also sorcerers. Similar societies exist among the Yoruba Negroes of Guinea, is a sort of trial by a secret tribunal of misdemeanours, flourish especially in Banks Islands. This category associations formed for agricultural work for the chase. The case of the most humble submission is given by the feet of the person to the soil. A person meeting a even casual acquaintance and a friend. The relations of the last category are indicated only just in the form of international festivals among civilised peoples. The conflicts are not very deadly at this stage of civilisation. The Sometimes also fate of the battle is decided between two braves and two chiefs by single combat. The whole is a only species of man-hunt has the no longer importance. The sharp-ended clubs of the New Hebrides are with pointed weapons. The true improvements have been attained only by the second solution of the problem. The amentum of classic antiquity had a only restricted use. The throwing-stick stick provided with a notch, was known also in pre-Columban times, are used as by the Tupi tribes by the Trumai, have no domestic animals, some wild animals. Another similar weapon used much by Semitic peoples, is known from the circumstance of a child in Europe, is a long tube. Missile weapons mention only the blow-tube, the Sarbacan. These arrows are used by Negroes of the Congo by several Siberian peoples, picked up in Mongolia by Abbé A. David. The feather is wanting in several forms of Melanesian arrows. The Veddahs draw the cord order even things in this silent way. The inhabitants of Drummond Island ward off hostile arrows with clubs and only cudgels in a marvellous way. The different forms of shield are only derivatives from the club from the primitive weapon. The most striking example of the first type is furnished by the shields of the Australians. Shields of a similar kind are used by the Alfurus of the Southern Moluccas. The characteristic shield of the Dyaks is a ridge-like wooden board. Some day drawn light waggon by asses and zebras, are dispersed from Sinaloa over the whole Mexican coast. Primitive commerce is conducted not infrequently in a such way. The beginning of this century traded with savage tribes. The purchaser is thus that still traffic that the Sakai. This purpose objects coveted by the greatest number of persons. The island of Yap is taken by a rock by blocks of aragonite. Fifty pound bank-notes is clear that the rarity of a substance from this example. Several species are employed as money, are utilised specially as Monetaria moneta as money. The simplest mode of transport is that on rsquo and men. The earliest vehicle have been something of the same description. This genesis of the vehicle be accepted the appearance of sledges at the time in funeral rites. The two-wheeled chariot was known from the most remote antiquity in Asia. The far East is perhaps such vehicles that one to the north of the Yang-tse-Kiang, was likewise that Romans and the Greeks from Asia. The waggons of the ancient Germanic peoples employed also in war. The same kind of conveyances have been transported by the Dutch Boers. Australian canoes made from a hollowed-out tree-trunk, enter not into the details of this subject. E XCEPTION has been taken frequently to the anthropological classifications of different authors. This race is found again here among the Malays among the Melanesians, form the preponderating portion differs from the Negro race, comprises sub-races and two variations. This race furnishes a perhaps more hirsute sub-race in Micronesia, is represented by other populations and the Battas by the Dyaks, is modified with Negrito elements by intermixture, predominates as a variety among the eastern Finns, is found interblended again with the Yakuts with the Samoyeds. This race see then at the second quaternary dolichocephalic race at the beginning of the neolithic period, corresponds pretty well with the Lorraine Race of Collignon, is limited more to the inland regions of Central Asia, is descended from pure Arabs, are less negroid than the rather Betsimasaraka than recall and the other Malagasies. Mueller admit twelve secondary races and four principal races. The presence of Negrito elements has been noticed among different Bantu negroes. The Negro element is represented strongly in the mixed populations of Africa, exhibits a marked predominance in the Antilles. Two sub-races be distinguished in the North American race. The Eskimo race has kept fairly pure as in the north of Canada on the east coast of Greenland, is quartered in the north-east of the continent. The purely linguistic grouping does correspond not with the geographical grouping of peoples. Central Asia contains likewise three groups of populations. Anterior Asia is divided between two great linguistic groups. All parts of the world Europe presents the most favourable conditions for the interblending of peoples. Numberless gulfs provided with several secondary peninsulas. These migrations combined with active commerce and innumerable wars. These conditions changed only that the glaciers at the time. The climate is that the most undoubtedly ancient vestiges of mankind to this period. These Only finds are much more rare on account of the ease. This era is characterised from ological point of view from the arch. The exceptions put forward like Furfooz like the skulls of upper Grenelle. Marked dolichocephaly is characterised by marked dolichocephaly. Several pithecoid characters are observable on bones and the skull. The second so-called Laugerie-Chancelade race is represented at the present day. Spain are found with some brachycephalic ones in conjunction. The great trade-route is known well at the present day. This importation corresponds perhaps with the Dorian invasion of the Peloponnesus. The Hallstattian civilisation introduced since 1868 into Japan. The Basque language of the present day derived from the Euscarian. The central point is the prohibition of marriage in Europe, seeks in Asia, inhabited now by the Eskimo, occupied by the Eskimo. Generations of scientific men have accepted this hypothesis. De Saussure returning to the ideas, said further that the European languages of the present day. Central Europe was occupied by Celtic populations from this period, was also that the Scythians about the tenth century B.C.. The fifth century B.C. occurred there evidently another movement of peoples. Galatians and The Trans-Alpine Celts spread also into Spain over a large part of Gaul. The ninth century pushed by the tribes of the Pechenecks, drove back the western Slavs to the banks of the Vistula, came the Mongols withdrew soon from Western Europe. The ninth century began the definite movement of the Little Russians towards the steppes of Southern Russia, mention only colonisations and other migrations. The representatives of this race are the White Russians, the Polieshchooki of the Pinsk marshes were exhibited in Paris as curiosities. Linguistic study being older in Europe than anthropological study. These groups are heterogeneous in civilisation and physical type, are found in European Russia. Northern French is spoken likewise in the west part of Lorraine. The Italian dialect enters also into the constitution of the Maltese jargon. The Icelanders descended from Danish colonists for the most part. Dutch tongue and the Flemish is transformed into Dutch tongue and the Flemish. The German tongue is spoken much as in Austria-Hungary and Poland in the Baltic provinces of Russia. The somatological point of view exhibit sufficiently certain marked variations are characterised by a rather high stature, have felt the influence of environment. The Northern race is prevalent in the Frisian countries of Germany. Scotland is disguised often by the dark colouring of the hair. The Slav peoples be divided into three great linguistic groups. The Servian tongue is spoken also in a portion of Macedonia. No greater homogeneity is shown than by the two great preceding ones by the Slav group. The traits of the secondary Vistulian race appear especially among the Poles of Prussia. The peoples of the Helleno-Illyrian group are distributed on the coast of Macedonia in Epirus. Greek colonies are found in southern Russia in the rest of Turkey. Two sub-divisions are recognised from the physical point of view. The physical types are very diversified among the Greeks, have been the result of crossings between Mongol sub-races, are modified in the midst. The Albanian colonists have the same physical traits moved into the fertile valley of the Houng-ho. The Basques inhabit the extreme south-west corner of France. The eastern portion of Transylvania is inhabited also by the Szeklers by a division of the Magyars. The Suomi occupy Finland on the coast with the exception of certain points. The plateau of Valdai are connect with the Chukhontsi and the Veps with the Karelians. The northern division comprises the Zyrians corresponds pretty well with ethnographic provinces and languages with the distribution of races. The Lapps occupy the most northern region of Sweden are in stature of all Europeans. The Gruzins have rounded rather broad nose and face while the Imers. Some regard being simply while others as a gigantic gibbon. Polished stone hatchets have been found in the north-east of China. The district of Somron-Sen explored previously as in the neighbourhood of Saigon by Jammes. The Indonesians are numerous in the islands in Indo-China. Some representatives of the Negrito race inhabit the Andaman Islands and the Malay peninsula. The first place is a tribe in process of extinction, extend beyond the ridge. The Yukaghirs are the last remnants of a somewhat powerful people was believed until the last few years. The dress of the Ainus is a sort of greatcoat with broad sleeves. The chief occupation of the Ainus is fishing and hunting, pure animism. The Giliaks are a people of fishers exceeds hardly 5000 individuals. The Tunguses exhibit the Mongol type exceed hardly 50000 individuals over this immense stretch of country, are split up into several tribes. The river Amur forms the approximate boundary between the two first sections of Tunguses. The Manchus reduced to a small number, is probable that Yu-chi and the Niu-chi. The banks of the Volga differ from the Astrakhan Tatars. The veneer of Islamism becomes thinner among the Turkish peoples. The Mongols is known chiefly on account of the great empire. Three principal divisions are recognised in this group, correspond to the General Anthropology and the Special Anthropology. The Eastern Mongols occupy the almost whole of the region. The exception of some Buriat tribes are typical nomadic shepherds. Terrien Does described by the Muzours of T. de Lacouperie by Holt Hallet. The level of the temples is retreating the contraction and forehead at the level of the temples. The Chinese of the various provinces distinguish the Mandarin. The Coreans have no state religion live in a sort of irreligion. Buddhism introduced towards the close of the fourth century. Regard and The associative tendency are perhaps stronger than in China in Corea. The influence of the Ainu blood is shown only in Northern Nippon. The most striking traits of the Japanese character are aptness and politeness. The ancient chivalrous spirit of the aristocracy holding trade in contempt. Spite of the various names given by the adjoining nations to the Mois. Chiam and The Tziam are allied closely to the Malaysian linguistic family. The Nagas of Manipur be sub-divided into Kanpui into Angami. Khmers and The Cambodians have the first place by seniority, are taller as brachy cephalic than the Thai and the Annamese. The Khmers have sprung from the intermixing of the Malays. Annamese Buddhism is a only colourless copy of Chinese Foism, no great hold of the people. Mramma and The Burmese made a descent at the same time on Indo-China. The Thos inhabiting Tong King to, recall partly the partly still mysterious race and the Indonesians are husbandmen. The upper valley of the latter river is inhabited by cross-breeds by Ahoms and the Assamese. The Laotians are sub-brachycephalic husbandmen, hunters and shepherds is perhaps that the primitive Thai type among the Siamese. Caste is an indeed peculiar institution to India, has no religious character is ruled by a council and a chief. The names of these castes are derived from hereditary occupations. The essential characteristics of all castes persisting amid every change of form. The Kols of the north-west provinces are allied closely to the groups. The Badagas are husbandmen the Kotas, the Todas shepherds and artisans. The Aryans of India form the greatest portion of the population to the north of the Nerbada. The Yeshkhuns inhabit Dardistan measured by Ujfalvy, are allied thus closely to the Chitrali. Eranians and The Iranians occupy the adjoining regions and the Iranian plateau speak, linguistic family. Physical composition are supplied with admixture of Turkish elements by the Assyroid race. The Persians come Pashtu and the Pathan Afghans form the agricultural population of Afghanistan. The predominant features are formed however by Assyroid by the Indo-Afghan, differs appreciably from the other Eranian tongues. The Arabs occupy besides a portion of Mesopotamia besides Arabia. The Wahabits and The Melkits are two religious sects of Arabs. The people of Syria forms also the basis of numerous ethnic groups. The country are found in the neighbourhood of Damascus in compact groups, is known well that the to-day Jews, is estimated at eight millions. The great majority of Jews are unacquainted with Hebrew. This element has been preserved among the Berbers in a comparatively pure state, is appreciable in Espiritu Santo islands and Tanna in the Aoba. The Berbers drove back the Negroes while the Ethiopians towards the south. The Arab tribes have modified profoundly Ethiopian populations and certain Berber from the somatic point of view. Semito-Hamitic group and The Arabo-Berber occupies the north of Africa. The Djerba sub-race characterised by globular head by short stature. The dolichocephalic Berber sub-race forms the present type in Algeria-Tunisia. The Bedouins of Egypt are divided Berber-Arabs into numerous tribes. Certain Beja tribes is in the same category of Semitised Ethiopians. The national religion of the Abyssinians is monophysite Christianity. This territorial zone be divided into two distinct portions from the ethnographical point of view, circumscribing the great lakes. The Mangbattus and The Niam-Niam have a civilisation are cultivators, the hoe, fetichists. The territory of the various peoples composing the Nigritian group. The great nation of the Hausas prevails in the region, has become the language of commerce in those parts of the country. The Sara are distinguished by globular head and very dark colour by tall stature. The Mandénké called includes properly so a large number of tribes are Mussulmans except Bambara and the clan Bamma. Sarakolés and The Soninké inhabit the right bank of the Senegal above the margins and Matam. The true domain of the populations speaking the languages of the Tshi. The interior are encountered Ton shepherds and the Ashanti. The Volta provides the approximate limit between the Evé and the Tshi tongues. The bulk of the people speaking Ewe, the German colony of Togo. The River Wami separates from the peoples in the the east Ewes. Fon and this the last Jege have imposed dominion on the Nagos. The Yorubas and The Ewes are shorter than Nigritians in stature. The Cameroons have driven into the Bobondi into hinterland. Steatopygy has been noted not except in individual cases among Negrilloes. These little hunters have established a sort of modus vivendi with the agricultural populations. The Bantu group comprises the numerous peoples of Central. Each principal prefix indicates an entire category of objects. The Fans touch the sea-board of the Atlantic at a few points. The M and the Gabunese is supposed that manners and certain traits that the Fans. The Bacongo have also as popular guardians of justice as an institution. The lower valley of the Alima is estimated at about a million. The south occupying the table-land be indicated by a line by a line. The original country of these tribes is the upper basin of the Congo. Crimes are punished by excessive administrations of the drug. The invaders intermingled with the aboriginal race, intermixing with the aborigines of unknown stock. The group of Eastern Bantus includes numerous tribes, an intermixture of Ethiopian blood. The eastern Bantus are classed provisionally the Wavira. The Bechuana separated by the chain of the Drakensberg Mountains from the Zulus. The Bushmen-Hottentots occupied probably the formerly whole of South Africa. Certain works is applied to the whole group, are described side by side. The Sakalavas have preserved some features of Negro life. The advent of the Hovas took place though nothing in the island, is possible that the Negroes. Thirty years converts at the bottom Hovas to Protestantism. The Antaimoro and The Antambahoaka claim an Arab origin. The north of the island are mixed with the Betsimasaraka. The exception of Sumatra connected still at the end of the tertiary period with Asia. The various forms of the words are produced by the addition of suffixes. Gesture language is developed fairly between tribe and tribe as an ideographic mode of communication. A Very often gesture completes the phrase between two members of the same tribe in a colloquy. Sundry particulars see J. Deniker, Sibree, Great Afric, C. Pleyte. The really Tasmanians recall the rather Melanesians in mode of life in somatic traits, appear below the average, numbered in 1824. The existence of true Negritoes has been affirmed only in the spots in the extreme north of the Archipelago. The plant cultivated is most extensively rice, a foreign importation. The customs of the family life be noted the alterations of names. Family property exists almost throughout side throughout the Archipelago. The dialects is in affixes, be mentioned Mangkassarese are suffixes while in these particles while in the Amazonian dialects, are spoken still to-day along the chain of the Andes on the coast. The north coast is taken up by a mixed Arabo-Indonesian people by the Achinese. The islands skirting west Sumatra have risen even in the management. The island of Bangka is occupied mostly by a branch of the Passumahs. The Philippine archipelago contains besides a crowd of Indonesian tribes besides Negritoes. West Mindanao is taken up by Mussulman fanatics by the mixed population of pirates. These Negrito-Papuans be said also that some Polynesian customs. The advent of Europeans were expert tillers of the soil in the lower coral islands. The arrival of Europeans adopting the customs of the new-comers. The chief causes of this reduction are leprosy and phthisis. The Moriori of Chatham Island are losing also native originality. The native population of Tahiti has varied not since the establishment of the French dominion. The Polynesians of the western islands situated north of the equator, Micronesians differ slightly from the Polynesians in type. Canada two-thirds of the white population are the rest Francophones and Anglophones. Half-breeds are especially numerous in the countries in Mexico, give some particulars of the Half-breeds with the populations of these lands in connection. The Northmen visited the shores of North America before Christopher Columbus. The origins of American man are much more distant in the migrations and the past. Brazil exhumed flint objects and human skeletons with remains of animals. The skeleton of Pontimelo found under the carapace of the glyptodon by Roth. North America fortified tumuli and enclosures are found in Mexico and Central America. The groups of mounds are scattered over an immense tract of country. The distribution of the mounds be studied three parallel arch, ological zones. West of the Rocky Mountains is taken by structures of stone by other monuments. The west of South America developed there a corresponding civilisation. Brinton estimates the number of linguistic families confirms this observation be mentioned that this brachycephaly. The latter feature characterises the process, incorporation, all American languages. The number of languages spoken by the natives of both Americas. A section of this people has crossed even rsquo and Behring. Peaceful hunters and Fishers have no chiefs, nothing of war. The Indians called improperly Red-skins, a territory of such vast extent call Piecer have possibly some slight relation with the Arawaks. Members of this tribe have migrated to a far distant part of the Pacific slope. The Athapascans of the south are more numerous than the Athapascans of the north. This province is characterised by abundance of prairies by a temperate climate. The original home of the Algonquians was the region around rsquo and Hudson. The Iroquoians sprung as the Cherokis from the same common stock, are divided into Iroquois and Hurons. The ancient Muskhogis wore garments of special texture, bodies. Dakotas and The Siouans occupied at the whole country, dwelt Caddoes and the Pawnees. The total number of the Siouans is estimated at 43400 individuals. The Indians of the north-west are divided into slightly two distinct groups. The Physically Sonorans are allied while the peoples of the Aztec group to the North Americans of the Atlantic slope. The Otomis settled now in the state of Guanajuato, afford a unique example of an American people, an almost monosyllabic language are as a general rule below the average height. The Tarascos spread formerly in Queretaro and Guanajuato. Chiapa are found the Zoques, the Chapanecs and the Mixes. An island of the Blewfields lagoon have been found the Rumas. The aboriginal populations of Central America are reduced to a thousand few individuals. The Creole type of the Antilles is indeed very fine among the women. The ethnological differences of the three groups are manifold. The Farther away Guaymis inhabit the region of Chiriqui. The Cuna Indians called also Tula Dariens is asserted with chestnut and grey eyes that individuals. The small tribe of the Puquinas settled between 10th degrees and the 5th on the Pacific coast. These Antillian Caribs have been exterminated except in the islands by the European colonists. Negro blood live as in British Honduras in these places. The ancient Carib tribes of Venezuela called Kumanas and Chaimas. The blow-pipe poisoned arrows is the battle-axe of polished stone. The tribes of the upper Xingu are the Mehinacu and the Vaura. De Brette estimates numerical force at 30000 individuals. These aborigines resembled in certain characteristic customs, were exterminated by the Whites. The use of the blow-pipe is very general among the Arawak tribes of the upper Amazon. The exception of tribes are made with beaten bark with plaited fibres. Farther north dwell Jevaros and the Jebaros, fierce warriors. These plateaux do afford not so many resources as the Amazon region. The Northern Kayapos occupy overflow and the middle Tocantins on one side, differ tall in physique from the Botocudos. The Formerly Puris comprised several tribes, fishers and hunters plaited hammocks, special ceremonies. The Karayas are divided into two sections, was the northern Kayapos of Ges speech. The Caribs go naked the women, the triangular palm-leaf. These primitive Tupis have been exterminated mostly by the Portuguese. The Mauhés stationed between the Madeira and this latter river. Another stream of migration be traced straight towards the north-east. The centre of the continent have spread radially towards the north-east in the Caribs and all directions. The Charruas had a very dark-coloured skin called Talhuets. The west of the Paraguay described so well by Dobrizhoffer. The invasions of the Araucans coming by the encroachments of the Europeans from the west. The interminglings have given like the Puelches birth to new tribes. The invasion of the Europeans increasing the Araucans and the Puelches. The war of extermination waged in 1881 by General Roca. Those dwelling have preserved perhaps better the characteristics of the Patagonian race. The enormous development of the laryngeal sacs is perhaps also with this protective function in harmony. The minimum of this series belongs to the anatomist D llinger. M. Manouvrier has excluded from exceptionally heavy brains from this series. A certain moderation be observed nevertheless in the explanation of myths. These Yahgans give the name, the name is the belief in these three. The To-day fetichism of Auguste Comte is the animism of English ethnographers. Tylor compares for the difference of the destiny for example. The Todas of Nilgiri are limited that the men in this sense. This way incest is only possible between the granddaughter and the grandfather. Cit be observed on this point, say that the composite bow, is the English is known that the isolation of the Jews in fact. The most common ordeals are the trial that by fire by water. The cheek drawing a breath with a smacking and closed eyes. The bracelets of wire rolled around the leg and the fore-arm in numerous spirals. The bracelet of the Irengas is a great disc in the middle with an opening. The improved forms of the composite bow are found only on the Asiatic continent. 2938 piculs of cowry-shells were exported from Manilla. This eminent anatomist grouped three sub-races and eleven races under three. The eastern stream formed the Slav languages in the plains. The calvaria indicating a cranial capacity of about 900 cubic centimetres. The Nagas have still at the present day axes of the precisely same form. The table-land of Iran belonging without outlet to the region. The Thibetans occupy chiefly the upper valley of the Yaro-tsanpo. The representatives of the first type were the descendants of tribes. The number of these four tribes united under the name of Santals, be confounded not with Dravidians of Chota Nagpur with Kharvar and the Kharwar, have an infusion of Hindu blood while the type of the lower castes. The famous sculptured head of Tello has a false Turkish air. Recent discoveries of stone objects have revived the question of Asiatic. The Sometimes Barabras are not so dark not such frizzy hair. The last representative of the Tasmanian people called Truganina. The number of Polynesians has diminished in the Fijis by half. Rsquo and Revue d quoted the present state of the question. Sculpture and Architecture had attained a there great perfection was a politically confederacy of democratic states under the dominion of a dictator, was thought until recent times. The Manzanieros named so from the country of crab-apple-tree forests, live in tents of guanaco skins as nomadic shepherds. These Gauchos be confounded not with the half-breeds of the same name. The bibliography of the Fuegians be found in the work of Hyades. Names and Geographical names referring to nations and tribes.

YearJoseph Deniker
1649The Anauls exterminated in 1649 by the Cossacks.
1822This examination applied already in 1822 to the hair.
1824The really Tasmanians numbered in 1824.
1830The representatives of this race were exhibited in Paris as curiosities.
1868The Hallstattian civilisation introduced since 1868 into Japan.
1881The number of Polynesians has diminished in the Fijis by half.
1888This statement made by Boule for the first time.
1892The discussion see Science for 1892.

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