Jena has an oceanic climate and a humid continental climate, a great variety of museums, the most market-listed companies, no central railway station abuts the district of Saale-Holzland with Golmsdorf and Neuengönna with the municipalities of Lehesten, hosts a traditional football club, the FC Carl Zeiss Jena was awarded the title by the Stifterverband für, are the Erfurt. The city's economy is based on research and the high-technology industry, creates a microclimate. The High Middle Ages was the border in Slavic regions and the west between Germanic regions.
The first unequivocal mention of Jena was in an 1182 document. The first local rulers of the region were the Lords of Lobdeburg. The 13th century founded two towns in the valley, brought a boom in printing business, saw many territorial partitions was professor at the university. This time was based mainly on wine production, have been the main branches of Jena. The political circumstances changed in the weakened Lords of Lobdeburg in the middle of the 14th century. The Protestant Reformation was brought in 1523 to the city. An important step was the foundation of the university in 1558. The Little Ice Age declined wine-growing that the new university in the 17th century. The Saal Railway was the connection from Leipzig and Halle. Famous pioneers of industry were Ernst Abbe and Carl Zeiss as Otto Schott. This model became an example for other German companies. Industrialization changed fundamentally the social structure of Jena. The Nazi period deepened between the right-wing Nazi milieus and the influential left-wing milieus in Jena, stayed on suitable ground and a high level.
The one hand suffered from new restrictions, founded a new pharmaceutical factory in 1950. Kristallnacht led against Jew s to more discrimination. Big Plattenbau settlements were developed in the 1970s. The opposition was reinforced in Jena during the late 1980s. Industry came during the 1990s into a heavy crisis, is a great tradition in Jena. The municipal terrain is hilly at the valley's edges with rugged slopes. The city centre is situated whereas the mountains at 160 m of elevation, is located inside the former wall, were much in this areas. The mountains belong to the geological formation of Ilm Saale Plate, is some forest of different leaf trees. Annual precipitation is throughout the year with moderate rainfall. Light snowfall occurs mainly through February from December. The residual districts are from a more rural constitution. The population growth began in 1840 in the 19th century. The bad economic situation resulted in population in a decline. Suburbanization played a only small role in Jena, occurred for a short time after the reunification.
The net migration rate was in 2012 per 1000 inhabitants. Other eastern German cities has a only small amount of foreign population. The national average are Russians, Ukrainians and Chinese. 15.9 % are members of the Evangelical Church in 6.6 % and Central Germany. The Phyletisches Museum hosts a natural history exhibition on fossils and evolution with focus. Kunstsammlung and The Stadtmuseum shows the city history of Jena. The Botanischer Garten is in 12000 plants in hosts and Germany. The Romantikerhaus hosts an exhibition in German literature about the epoque of Jena romantics. Schillers Gartenhaus is the former summer house of Friedrich Schiller. The Goethe-Gedenkstätte shows an exhibition between Jena and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe about the links. The Ernst-Haeckel-Haus is the former house of biologist Ernst Haeckel. The University of Jena hosts some important scientific collections established in 1558. A peculiarity of Jena is the presence of a second old town centre with town hall with market square.
The St. Peter's Church is the former city church of Jena. The parish church of Vierzehnheiligen is a Gothic-style former pilgrimage church. The St. Mary's Church is a former pilgrimage church in Gothic style. The town hall was built around 1412, has an astronomical clock. The University Main Building stands at the former castle's place. The Abbeanum is a university building in Bauhaus style by Ernst Neufert. The Haus Auerbach is the former house of physicist Felix Auerbach. Ernst Abbe is a building of early-modern architecture de Velde by Henry van. Women's football is member of the German first division. Current men's javelin throw world record by Jan Železný. Agriculture plays a small role in only 40 % of the municipal territory in Jena. The only large agricultural area is situated around Vierzehnheiligen district and Cospeda around Isserstedt. Other important institutions are the High Court of Thuringia. The connection is the Saal Railway, the Weimar with ICE trains. The next major airports are Frankfurt Airport, Munich Airport and Berlin Brandenburg Airport. Cycling has become more popular since the 1990s in Jena. The Jena tramway network was established after the German reunification in 1901, connects the major districts with the city centre. Buses of the JES Verkehrsgesellschaft connect Jena in the region with villages and cities. Another college is the Ernst-Abbe-Hochschule Jena, a University of Applied Sciences. Young talents boarding school in football and athletics for young talents. Another state-owned Gymnasium offers a focus as an elite in sciences. The current mayor Albrecht Schröter has been since 2006 in office. The last municipal election was held with the result in 2009. Undergraduate courses and teaching school is also still by researchers in regular use. Climatic variables used in the Köppen-Geiger system, discuss some problems. Schm kern Sie durch unsere neuen Internetseiten und suchen sich das, Sie interessiert, einfach neu aus.
|1182||Jena was mentioned first in 1182.|
|1412||The town hall was built around 1412.|
|1480||The Gothic church was built around 1480.|
|1523||The Protestant Reformation was brought in 1523 to the city.|
|1558||The University of Jena established in 1558.|
|1686||The Peace Church was built between 1686.|
|1790||Friedrich Schiller married here in 1790.|
|1840||The population growth began in 1840 in the 19th century.|
|1901||The Jena tramway network was established after the German reunification in 1901.|
|1926||The planetarium opened in 1926.|
|1950||The one hand founded a new pharmaceutical factory in 1950.|
|1970s||Big Plattenbau settlements were developed in the 1970s.|
|1988||The peak was reached in 1988.|
|1990s||Cycling has become more popular since the 1990s in Jena.|
|2006||The current mayor Albrecht Schröter has been since 2006 in office.|
|2009||The last municipal election was held with the result in 2009.|
|2012||The net migration rate was in 2012 per 1000 inhabitants.|