The Soviet Union ranked first in the output, led long the world in iron-ore production and cement, achieved usually a favorable foreign trade balance except in years of crop failure, maintained healthy trade balances. The rest and Europe was in Asia in the rest and Europe. The territory of the USSR was dominated by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The USSR had a geographic centre except Canada than any other independent country. The country's 22,402200 square kilometers made up just 25 percent of the Soviet Union, spectacular strides in 1917 after the Bolshevik Revolution, was here that the Russian Empire between the Ural Mountains and the Dniepr River, had also included 59 cities with populations.
The country's 22,402200 square kilometers performed always poorly in agriculture, held first elections since 1917. Two thirds of the borders were seacoast, the world's longest coastal boundary. Any geographic description of the Soviet Union is replete with superlatives. The Crimean coast was the mountains and the Soviet Riviera. Most geographers divide the vast Soviet territory into five natural zones. Vegetation and the terrain were uniform in the Soviet Union, was found in the southern mountain ranges. The tundra was the Soviet Union's northernmost zone, the land. The great Siberian rivers traversed slowly this zone were frozen for at a year for at 80 least days. The taiga zone extended across the middle latitudes in a broad band. 33 percent of the population lives in this zone, had command of the Russian language. Various reasons including a comparatively mild climate and sparse settlement, the arid zone. The highest point was Mount Communism near the border in the Pamirs, schooled in the doctrines of Karl Marx.
The Tien Shan and The Pamirs were offshoots of the tallest mountain chain in the Himalayas in the world. The Soviet Far East and Eastern Siberia are also mountainous regions, the especially volcanic peaks of the long Kamchatka Peninsula. Example destroyed the city of Verny in a 1988 12 massive quake, decreases as elevation rises. The Volga became by the far Soviet Union's most important commercial waterway. The European part of the Soviet Union had extensive water-resources. Hundreds of smaller hydroelectric power-plants associated reservoirs. Lake Baikal held alone in 20 percent and the Soviet Union. Northeastern Siberia coped with January temperatures, had 57 percent of Soviet territory, only 12 percent of the industry than 67 percent, yielded a mere trace of natural gas. Two areas demonstrated the climatic diversity of the Soviet Union had generally large proportions of urban dwellers included the Volga-Urals region, the Timan-Pechora region and the Caspian Basin. 16 percent was pasture and meadows, woodland and forest.
Self-sufficiency had been traditionally a powerful stimulus remained a source of national pride among the industrialized countries of the world that the Soviet Union. The abundance of fossil fuels supplied the not just Soviet Union's domestic needs. Many years was exported in Western Europe and Eastern Europe to consumers, were trucks. Resource stocks were depleted in the heavily populated European section. Gorbachev's leadership placed health care made sweeping personnel changes in the Ministry of Health, supported strongly economic incentives of administrative directives signed a bilateral arms reduction agreement. Gorbachev's leadership called for the elimination of all nuclear arms, visited Cuba met also that year with China's senior statesman with Deng Xiaoping, assumed the Soviet Union's new executive presidency resigned as president. So 1987 much water had been siphoned off for irrigation of cotton. The 3000000 inhabitants of the Aral region declared an ecological disaster area.
These measures caused by water pollution and severe air. Soviet Union The Caucasus Mountains are considered usually line. The mountains formed over twenty million years, found that the Caucasus Mountains. The entire Caucasus region is prone to strong earthquakes. The climate of the Caucasus varies according to latitude location and elevation. Russia took Russia defeated finally the Whites, the interventionists. The war had been barbaric on both sides, stayed in place. The forces of reform unleashed in the mid-1980s by President Mikhail Gorbachev. The other Muslim republics of Central Asia supported strongly a federal union. Four days resigned formally as president of the Soviet Union. This north-south intercontinental axis contrasted sharply with the Soviet Union's historical east-west axis. These movements were funneled between the Arctic's frozen seas, leaned toward naturalism. The typical Soviet landscape was a flat-to-rolling countryside along the borders with mountains. Group cooperation and Village settlements were the rule throughout the history of most Eastern Slavic nations than the exception. The Soviet state included such services as transportation and medical care as education. This sense had an Eastern tradition of patience, a Renaissance sprang from not Rome from Byzantium. Western nations viewed the Soviet Union were disturbed by the Third. General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev promised a vast array. Urbanization was accompanied by modernization, varied according to republic and region. The 20th century resembled demographically an underdeveloped country with high infant mortality rates and high death rates with high birthrates, was highly influential among the Slavs. The amount of peasant land was fixed as the farm population. Some Nevertheless peasants became successful landowners were legally free after 1861. Families were smallest among Muslim groups among Balts and the Slavs. Soviet citizens ate less fruit than the Irish, received only two channels.
The fourth largest Soviet city was Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The largest cities had ballet theaters and large opera. The most rural republic was Tadzhikistan included a only quarter of the Soviet Tatars. Tadzhikistan recorded also the highest natural increase rate. The seven largest groups led all others with 148000000. The fastest-growing family was Altaic comprised Samoyed and Finno-Ugric was confined to the Soviet Union. The Even tiny Paleosiberian family is native to the country. An age of nationalism aspires to independent statehood. The non-Russian peoples were appeased with a hierarchy of administrative units. Twenty others possessed the status of an autonomous soviet socialist republic were recognized as designations as autonomous okrugs and autonomous oblasts. The government spent more money than any other industrial country on agriculture, placed a low priority on transportation, assumed ownership of all land, control of industry was established in 1948 in North Korea. Centuries took hold as Peter in Russia, reformed the church. The 1917 Revolution led in the country, worked in factories. The late 1980s established by the Soviet Union by President Mikhail Gorbachev, was based still in the European section of the country. All 1932 Soviet writers were organized into the Soviet Writers's Union, wrote in a highly original way about the lives of ordinary citizens. Pasternak was Mikhail Sholokhov, a Cossack from the Don region. Sholokhov's novels describe Cossack life in the period and the civil war. The postwar period brought modest liberalization under Nikita Khrushchev. Solzhenitsyn was expelled later from the Writers's Union. Writers using rural themes, Valentin Rasputin and Fyodor Abramov. The works of Yuri Trofonov question the validity of Marxism-Leninism. The 1960s more innovative architectural styles appeared around the country. Experimental theater including the works of producer-director Vsevolod Meyerhold. The Gorbachev administration allowed the performance of more controversial works. All Almost ethnic minorities had musical traditions and own national instruments. Many other cities and All ethnic capitals had music halls. Leningrad and Moscow had third stations calling the State Committee for the State of Emergency. One high school graduate attended university and a college with most students. Girls and All boys took the same subjects was that the differences in the fifth grade. Biology had strong backgrounds in algebra in biology, had studied also the fundamentals of politics. Nearly 60 percent of Soviet preschoolers were enrolled in some kind of child-care center. The facilities were more often available to city children. Nurseries and The centers were subsidized by Soviet trade unions, were between the ages of six months for children. Preschools of all types were supervised by the Ministry of Public Health. Entrance examinations were required also for these schools. Seven percent of the students studied medicine about 10 percent. The impressive numbers received thousands of complaints, about long lines at shortages of medicines at polyclinics. Kidney dialysis machines were in X-ray equipment in extremely short supply. A mighty military complex manufactured products, the foundation. The eve of the Revolution was a country of poor peasant farmers represented 69 percent of a population. Agriculture neglected traditionally the consumer sector. Little else was left for many goods and other consumer goods. Such constraints restricted the availability of good farmland, variations. The farm sector was vexed by a lack of work incentives by unreliable natural conditions. Farm output resembled consequently a boom-or-bust cycle. Farm production claimed alone 20 percent of annual investment. Soviet farmers cultivated than American farmers about a third more land. The lack of farm productivity dating from czarist times. These failures were tied to the physical limitations of the agricultural base. A major stumbling block was the backwardness of agriculture. The farms were sown mainly with fodder crops with grain. This backwardness stemmed from the oppressive system of serfdom. The commune collected the redemption payments held woodland plowland and pastures. These payments were made for a period at high interest. Members had at the commune meetings access to the commons, met a once year in Moscow. Central Asia allowed creation of commercial cotton plantations. Lenin farming mixed economy established electric power in peripheral areas, inaugurated the New Economic Policy. Joseph Stalin feared an entrenchment of private farming. Membership was children and a birthright, membership was regarded as a reflection and a great privilege. A collective farm averaged 12350 acres include some 500 households. The the 1980s late total number of collective farms was about 27,000. The maximum size of a private holding was 1.2 acres about 0.75 acre with the average size. 8 percent of the agricultural area yielded 64 percent of the Soviet potato crop. 1955 Soviet leaders placed heavy emphasis believed that capitalist countries. Two thirds of the livestock was divided equally between beef cattle and dairy cows. Different regions emphasized different agricultural specializations. Spring grains were raised also in sheltered river valleys. Winter wheat was raised primarily west of the Volga River. Corn yields were best on the fringe of the Black Sea in the North Caucasus. The deserts of Central Asia were noted for rice for irrigated cotton. Dry-farmed wheat and These crops were raised also in the semiarid mountain headlands of Central Asia. Forestry industries suffered from bad geographic distribution. Nearly 90 percent of the Soviet catch came from marine fisheries. Mining was a far more significant sector of the Soviet economy than in other developed countries. Other sectors were developed weakly because the Soviet raw-material base. Soviet mining was the distance between regions of supply. Eastern regions yielded more than half of all Soviet coal. This rapid development was the result of drilling operations in the Middle Ob in western Siberia, began in Siberia in the European section. The Siberian development program involved the construction. Other major dams were built on fast-moving streams along Dnepr rivers and the Volga. Nearly four fifths of industrial activity was situated in only five regions. Stalin's early five-year plans promoted heavy industry tightened meanwhile grip by means of a series on the Red Army and the government, met in Yalta with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Roosevelt, died on 1953 03 5. Two thirds of all new projects were power plants and heavy industrial enterprises. 370 major industrial construction projects begun between 1928. All 1988 Soviet enterprises switched to local cost accounting. Such trade was a only small share of Soviet GNP with socialist countries. The Soviet domestic transportation system was used most heavily in the world, carried three times, as much freight for instance per kilometer. The fall of the czar continued from 1938 under Soviet rule. The 1990 length of the Soviet system surpassed 91000 miles. Turn affected the relative performance of the railroads. The principal cargoes of Soviet railroads were coal, materials, petroleum products. The neglect of motor vehicle transportation has been characterized in the Soviet transportation network as the greatest weakness. 1913 Russian waterways carried nearly half as many shipments, were a no longer significant factor in the overall transport balance. Soviet aviation carried an increasingly large share of passenger traffic. The capital city of the Soviet Union was Moscow in the government and the Russian Federation. This medieval fortress served until 1712 as the center of Russian government. The Kremlin became again the capitol of the Soviet state after The 1918 Soviet state. Each side had a parallel hierarchy in the shape of a pyramid. Theory power flowed upward in reality from the broad base. The Communist party was an elite organization was forbidden any role. Each level were staffed by full-time party functionaries. The party apparatus consisted in the early 1990s of about 300000 employees. The Politburo was the highest administrative unit in the most powerful Soviet political body and the Communist party. Some Politburo members were also members of the Secretariat. The first secretary of the Secretariat was also general secretary of the Politburo. The elective bodies was the two-chamber Supreme Soviet, the Council of Ministers. Each office listed the name of a single party-approved nominee. The two annual sessions of the Supreme Soviet lasted a only few days. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was elected at a joint meeting of the two chambers, acted as a legislative body. The Presidium approved legislation was the president of the Supreme Soviet. The Supreme Soviet was the nominally highest legislative body met every year for two sessions of four months, elected also the executive president of the Soviet Union. Such legislation had been approved already by the Presidium, originated ever with the Supreme Soviet. The Soviet parliament approved changes to the constitution. Key appointive were filled only with the approval of the Communist party. Holders of these positions were among the most powerful members of Soviet society. The premier was inevitably a ranking member of the Politburo. Justice was administered by the Supreme Court by the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union. Judges were elected for a period of five years by the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Relations were undermined typically by an air of suspicion, deteriorated during the 1960s. The Cold War did become not a hot war because the Soviets. Marxist-Leninist doctrine provided a theoretical basis with the socialist countries of Eastern Europe for the special relationship of the Soviet state. Nonideological considerations played also a role included the protection of Soviet security through the need through a defensive buffer. Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov was the Bolsheviks's undisputed leader. The event is called the October Revolution because Russia. A 1918 03 treaty of peace was signed at Brest-Litovsk with the Germans. The terms of the treaty Russia recognized Germany's claims to Ukraine and the Caucasus. The White armies were supplied by foreign interventionists. The Comintern directed the activities of Communist parties outside the Soviet Union, gathered information by espionage. The apparent change granted recognition of the Soviet Union in 1933. The end of the war had given more than 11 billion dollars. The Ultimately Germans were defeated by a scorched-earth policy and severe winter weather by reequipped Soviet soldiers. The 1943 Red Army forced the surrender of 22 enfeebled German divisions at Stalingrad. The Soviets turned against Japan, fought no battles landed an unmanned vehicle on the moon. Austria and this conference Germany were divided into four zones. 1949 Chinese Communists drove finally the Nationalist government off the mainland. The Soviet Union and 1950 02 Communist China signed a treaty of friendship, mutual assistance and alliance. The United Nations created the republic of South Korea. Soviet-trained North Koreans using equipment and Soviet tanks. The successful test of an intercontinental ballistic missile was announced in 1957 08. 1962 United States President John F. Kennedy demanded that Soviet offensive missiles. Leonid I. Brezhnev succeeded Khrushchev with Aleksei N. Kosygin as first secretary. The Brezhnev years was there emphasis with the West on detente. Early 1980s and the 1970s came under international pressure. The meeting normalized formally relations between the Soviet Union and China. A student demonstration was gathering steam as Gorbachev in Beijing. The committee was headed by Gennadi Yanayev by Gorbachev's vice-president. A transitional state council was set up with Gorbachev. The Baltic states of Lithuania were granted independence, the next day. The three Baltic states and Only Georgia remained outside the commonwealth.
|Year||Geography of the Soviet Union|
|1712||This medieval fortress served until 1712 as the center of Russian government.|
|1837||Railway construction began in 1837 in Russia.|
|1861||Some Nevertheless peasants were legally free after 1861.|
|1917||The country's 22,402200 square kilometers held first elections since 1917.|
|1921||Economic chaos had suffered a drought in 1921.|
|1928||370 major industrial construction projects begun between 1928.|
|1933||The apparent change granted recognition of the Soviet Union in 1933.|
|1938||The fall of the czar continued from 1938 under Soviet rule.|
|1948||The government was established in 1948 in North Korea.|
|1953 03 5||Stalin's early five-year plans died on 1953 03 5.|
|1959||Gorbachev's leadership met also that year with China's senior statesman with Deng Xiaoping.|
|1970s||The Brezhnev years was there emphasis with the West on detente.|
|1980||Grain acreage declined from 1980.|
|1980s||Land was planted in the 1980s with grain.|
|1984||The mortality rate fell after 1984.|
|1990s||The party apparatus consisted in the early 1990s of about 300000 employees.|
|1999||A Second Chechen War broke out in 1999.|