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Reptation Monte Carlo is a quantum Monte Carlo method

Segments of a Langevin guided by a trial wave function. Physical Review Letters ™ is a trademark of the American Physical Society. Physics logo and The APS Physics logo are trademarks of the American Physical Society, trademarks of the American Phy...
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Physical Review B is laurens W. Molenkamp

Physical Review B ™ is a trademark of the American Physical Society, a trademark of the American Physical Society, a trademark of the American Physical Society.
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Electron is a subatomic particle, symbol

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol, years at a 90 % confidence level with a negative elementary electric charge, has a mass, spin and an intrinsic angular momentum, no known substructure was measured more carefully by Harvey Fletcher and th...
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Condensed matter physics is a branch of physics

Condensed matter physics is a branch of physics act as thermodynamic variable s, has also important uses for example for biophysics. The most familiar condensed phases are liquid s and solid s while more exotic condensed phases. The study of condense...
Gravitational wave

Gravitational wave are ripples, gravitational waves

Gravitational waves are ripples, gravitational waves, the evanescent vibrations of space-time with constant frequency in the curvature of spacetime, exist not under Newton's law, penetrate regions of space are passing constantly Earth. Gravitational ...
Magnetic moment

Magnetic moment is a quantity

The magnetic field produced by a magnetic dipole moment by the magnet, does exert a torque on the magnetic dipole. The magnetic moment is defined as a vector, is related to the fictitious poles, has a close connection, a potential energy with angular...
FirstNeutrinoEventAnnotated

Neutrino is a fermion, a Majorana particle

A neutrino is a fermion, a Majorana particle, the mass created in a specific flavor eigenstate with a specific flavor, was postulated first by Wolfgang Pauli, has half-integer spin, a therefore fermion. A neutrino interacts with the collision with an...
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Naked singularity is a gravitational singularity

General relativity is a gravitational singularity without an event horizon. The theoretical existence of naked singularities cause also foundational problems because general relativity for general relativity. Generic black holes is a not problem as a...
Second law of thermodynamics

Second law of thermodynamics was an empirical finding

The second law of thermodynamics states increase only over time. The total entropy remain constant in ideal cases, depends on the choice. The second law has been expressed in many ways, is credited in 1824 to the French scientist Sadi Carnot, is conc...
T-symmetry

T-symmetry is the theoretical symmetry of physical laws

Time and T-symmetry is the theoretical symmetry of physical laws under the transformation of time reversal. Example are not time-reversal invariant at the macroscopic level. Macroscopic phenomena shows that T-symmetry, emerging in the entanglement in...
Rainer Weiss - December 2006

Rainer Weiss is a professor of physics emeritus

Rainer Weiss was Chair of the COBE Science Working Group has been recognized by numerous awards. Weiss brought two fields of fundamental physics research made, science advisor and co-founder invented also the interferometric gravitational wave detect...
2015 GEO 600

GEO600 is a gravitational wave detector, a Michelson interferometer

GEO600 is a gravitational wave detector, a Michelson interferometer in the South of Hanover near Sarstedt, participated in several data in several data, has reached the design sensitivity, the design sensitivity uses advanced many hardware and techni...
A photo of Niels Bohr

Dubnium is a chemical element

Dubnium is a chemical element does occur not naturally on Earth, was confirmed as 5 member as a group, was processed with concentrations to a nitric acid acid solution. The first discovery of the element was claimed for Nuclear Research by the Soviet...
Neutron

Neutron was developed by S. Kotochigova and M. Douma by J. Baker

The database was developed by S. Kotochigova and M. Douma by J. Baker. The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol, 0.782343 MeV, a neutral particle, the magnetic moment of a neutron, a spin, 1 particle, a free neutron, a free neutron since a free ne...
Superparamagnetism

Superparamagnetism is a form of magnetism

Superparamagnetism is a form of magnetism from this standard transition, occurs in nanoparticles, sets a limit. Sufficiently small nanoparticles flip randomly direction under the influence of temperature. The typical time flips is called the Néel re...
Photoluminescence

Photoluminescence is light emission, an important technique

Photoluminescence is light emission, an important technique after the absorption of photons from any form of matter. Observation of photoluminescence be viewed as indication. Photoluminescence processes be classified as the energy of the exciting pho...
Shot noise

Shot noise is a type of electronic noise

Poisson noise and Shot noise is a type of electronic noise in the case of photomultipliers from current fluctuations and voltage, occurs also in optical devices in photon counting, is known that in a statistical experiment, exists because phenomena. ...
Pink noise

Pink noise was not white at Schottky and low frequency

Pink noise carries an equal amount of noise energy was not white at Schottky and low frequency. The name arises with this power spectrum from the pink appearance of visible light. Pink noise is used often as a test signal in audio measurements. Vario...
Wavelet

Wavelet is a wave, a mathematical function

A wavelet is a wave, a mathematical function transforms be considered forms of time-frequency representation for continuous-time signals, transforms use, discrete-time filterbank s transform s, Generalized. A wavelet transform is compared often with ...
Astrochemistry

Astrochemistry is the study of the abundance

Astrochemistry is the study of the abundance overlaps with nuclear physics and astrophysics. Spectroscopy was used first in 1802 as an astronomical technique. These spectral lines were quantified later through the work of Joseph Von Fraunhofer. This ...
Shock wave

Shock wave is achieved through an expansion fan

The Thus sonic boom associated with the passage of a supersonic aircraft. Shock waves are not conventional sound waves, very small regions, very thin regions in the gas in the gas, occur also down slopes and inclined channels in rapid flows of dense ...
Percolation theory

Percolation theory are discussed in the article percolation

Mathematics and statistical physics describes the behaviour of connected clusters in a random graph, predicts also that a number of properties. Other domains and materials science are discussed in the article percolation. A representative question is...
Kondo effect

Kondo effect was described first by Jun Kondo

Physics describes the scattering of conduction electrons. Kondo's model was derived using perturbation theory showed in detail, considered a higher order correction term. The temperature dependence of the resistivity including the Kondo effect. Jun K...
Michelson interferometer

Michelson interferometer is a common configuration, a device

The Michelson interferometer is a common configuration, a device for optical interferometry, is employed in many scientific experiments, monitors all wavelengths throughout the entire measurement, be replaced with Gires. The Michelson interferometer ...
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Network theory is the study of graphs

Network theory is the study of graphs as a representation, has applications in many disciplines. Network science and computer science is a part of graph theory. Social network analysis examines the structure of relationships between social entities. ...
Free-electron laser

Free-electron laser is a kind of laser

A free-electron laser is a kind of laser are bounced between two. The free-electron laser is tunable the widest frequency range of any laser type was invented in 1971 by John Madey, utilizes technology. The beam passes through a periodic arrangement ...
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Magnon is a quasiparticle, a collective excitation of the electrons

A magnon is a quasiparticle, a collective excitation of the electron s reduces the total spin by one unit along the direction of magnetization. Magnons carry a fixed amount of energy behave with no chemical potential as a Bose gas. The concept of a m...
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Barnett effect is the magnetization of an uncharged body

The Barnett effect is the magnetization of an uncharged body was discovered in 1915 by American physicist Samuel Barnett. Barnett was motivated by Owen Richardson by a prediction, looked instead for the opposite effect, established the effect between...
Extinction event

Extinction event is the Paleocene-Eocene, Thermal Maximum

An extinction event lasted perhaps as long as 20000000 years. Biomass and most diversity leads in extinction rate to a persistent increase. The Great Oxygenation Event was the probably first major extinction event. The Cambrian explosion have exceede...
Gallium crystals

Gallium is a chemical element, bauxite

Gallium is a chemical element, bauxite, the chief ore of aluminium, a also component in photovoltaic compounds than eight times, does occur not in nature as a free element, is used predominantly in thermometers in electronics, has no known natural ro...
Hf-crystal bar

Hafnium is a chemical element, a ductile metal

Hafnium is a chemical element, a ductile metal with a brilliant silver luster, is named after the Latin name after Hafnia, is used in alloys in electrodes and filaments, makes a good material in control rods for neutron absorption. Hafnium does exist...
Scanning electron microscope

Scanning electron microscope is a type of electron microscope

A scanning electron microscope is a type of electron microscope was developed by a private consultant by von Ardenne, produces images. The electrons interact in the sample with atoms, are beam electrons emerge within the consequently resolution and t...
Magnetopause

Magnetopause is the abrupt boundary

The magnetopause is the abrupt boundary between a magnetosphere, was a just boundary in a plasma and a vacuum between a magnetic field. Planetary science is the boundary between the planet's magnetic field. The location of the magnetopause is determi...
Hassium

Hassium is a chemical element, a synthetic element

Hassium is a chemical element, a synthetic element, a member of the 7th period, is named after the German state of Hesse, was discovered officially by a German research team in 1984. The data matched At Physicists At Lawrence Berkeley, isotopes Ds. T...
Nonlinear optics

Nonlinear optics is the branch of optics

Nonlinear optics is the branch of optics remained unexplored by Peter Franken until the discovery, explains nonlinear response of properties as polarization as frequency. The theoretical basis were described first in Bloembergen's monograph. These no...
Cycloid

Cycloid is the curve, a specific form of trochoid

A cycloid is the curve, a specific form of trochoid, an example of a roulette, a curve satisfies the differential equation have the property. Historians of mathematics have proposed several candidates for the discoverer of the cycloid. Mathematical h...
Nucleosynthesis

Nucleosynthesis is the process

The first nuclei were formed after the Big Bang about three minutes, was then that lithium and helium that hydrogen. The formation of stars were created by stellar nucleosynthesis from helium and hydrogen. The synthesis of these heavier elements abso...
Soliton

Soliton is a self-reinforcing solitary wave packet

Physics and mathematics is a self-reinforcing solitary wave packet. Solitons are caused in the medium, are the solutions of a widespread class in DNA and proteins to the low-frequency collective motion, are described by the Manakov equations, make lo...
Speckle pattern

Speckle pattern is an intensity pattern

A speckle pattern is an intensity pattern produced inside the sphere. This phenomenon has been investigated since the time of Newton by scientists. The speckle effect is is used also in eye testing in speckle imaging. The position of the imaging syst...
Complex systems organizational map

Complex systems is a subset of systems theory

A complex system defined broadly a set of entities exhibit properties made war. Complex systems are system s is used therefore often as a broad term, is concerned chiefly with properties and the behaviors, have often nonlinear behavior, features. Suc...
PID controller

PID controller has three control terms, some applications

A PID controller calculates continuously an error value, an error value as the difference as the difference, has three control terms, some applications is the sum of the instantaneous error over time, acts as outer loop controller. A PID controller c...
Moiré pattern

Moiré pattern are large scale interference patterns

Moiré patterns appear in many different situations, are an often artifact of images revealing complex shapes are seen commonly on television screens. The wool of the Angora goat has been suggested also that the Arabic word. Moiré and Moire are used...
Surface science

Surface science is a standard tool

Surface science includes the fields of surface chemistry. Some related practical applications are classed as surface engineering. The science encompasses concepts as semiconductor device fabrication as heterogeneous catalysis. The field of surface ch...
Antihydrogen

Antihydrogen is the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen

Antihydrogen is the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen is produced artificially in particle accelerators, was produced first in 2002 by ATHENA. Accelerators detected first hot antihydrogen in the 1990s. ATHENA studied cold in 2002, was trapped first ...
Langmuir probe

Langmuir probe is a device

A Langmuir probe is a device be purchased off the shelf for on the order of 15000 U.S. dollars. The beginning of Langmuir probe theory is the I-V characteristic of the Debye sheath. Some situations yield information on the ion temperature on the ion ...
Island of stability

Island of stability is the prediction

Nuclear physics is the prediction with a near magic number of protons that a set of heavy nuclides. Predictions of the exact location differ somewhat Klaus Blaum. The nuclear shell model has existed since the existence since the 1960s. The rest of th...
Equatorial bulge

Equatorial bulge is a difference

An equatorial bulge is a difference between polar diameter s and the equatorial. The Earth has an equatorial bulge rotates faster than the moon. The ocean bulges also like Chimborazo like the atmosphere and the Earth. Rotation causes a distortion fro...
Magnesium oxide

Magnesium oxide has an empirical formula

Magnesium oxide has an empirical formula is produced by the calcination of magnesium carbonate, is used extensively in wastewater treatment in groundwater remediation and the soil, be used for different reasons. Magnesium oxide is available without a...
Voronoi diagram

Voronoi diagram is a partitioning of a plane

Voronoi diagrams are known also as Thiessen polygons, look different for different distance metrics, subdivide also space are related also as the medial axis to other geometric structures. Voronoi diagrams fill space and the plane, convex polygons ar...
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Ball lightning is an unexplained atmospheric electrical phenomenon

Ball lightning is an unexplained atmospheric electrical phenomenon is identified often erroneously as St. Elmo's fire, has been observed at a distance of 0.9 km with two slitless spectrographs, keeps thus secrets. Ball lightning last up to 10 seconds...
Negative feedback

Negative feedback be seen in the refinements of the water clock

Negative feedback be seen in the refinements of the water clock, was implemented in the 17th Century, has many advantages, amplifiers with feedback, sets the overall amplifier gain at a value. Self-regulating mechanisms have existed since antiquity. ...
Internet_map_1024

Scale-free network is a network

A scale-free network is a network having k connections to other nodes. Analytic solutions were presented by Dorogovtsev in 2000. The history of scale-free networks includes also some disagreement. Instance believed that the Internet, generated by pre...
Dayton Miller 1921 crop

Dayton Miller was an advocate of aether theory

An early experimenter of X-rays was an advocate of aether theory. Miller spent entire career teaching physics in Cleveland at the Case School of Applied Science, claimed that the explanation, included sound performed also music. Miller met with Alber...
Spacefill model of dilithium

Dilithium is an extremely important model system

The electron configuration of Li be written as σ, has been observed in the vapor phase that 1 % of lithium. The helium dimer and H is an extremely important model system. Example extracted by Le Roy from the A-state potential of Li. This lithium osc...
Ising model

Ising model was invented by the physicist

The Ising model named after the physicist Ernst Ising, allows the identification of phase transition s was invented by the physicist, has no phase transition, a partition function, only two effective parameters, a number of experimental findings. The...
Ricci flow

Ricci flow is an intrinsic geometric flow, a process

Differential geometry is an intrinsic geometric flow, a process. The Ricci flow named after Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro, is the primary tool has been studied intensively since 1981. The manifold is a sphere, an Einstein manifold with then Ricci flow wit...
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Cosmochemistry is in the processes and the universe

Chemical cosmology and Cosmochemistry is in the processes and the universe. Goldschmidt justified the inclusion of meteorite composition data. John Reynolds determined within meteorites through the analysis of short-lived nuclides. Many meteorites co...
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Supersolid is ordered spatially material

A supersolid is ordered spatially material with superfluid properties. Superfluidity is a special quantum state of matter arises by a second-order phase transition from the normal liquid. Several experiments yielded negative results from UCSD in the ...
Molybdenite quebec2

Molybdenite is a mineral of molybdenum disulfide, Mo S

Molybdenite is a mineral of molybdenum disulfide, Mo S, higher specific gravity, an important ore of molybdenum, the most common source of the metal with a metallic luster, occurs in hydrothermal ore deposits in high temperature, associated minerals ...
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Stellar black hole is a black hole

A stellar black hole is a black hole whereas the companion star in X-rays, have masses has about 3.8 times, resides in binary system in a Milky Way Galaxy. A stellar black hole sits in a binary system. The process is observed as a gamma ray burst as ...
Alnico

Alnico is an acronym

Alnico is an acronym include also sometimes titanium and copper. Alnico alloys are ferromagnetic the only magnets with a high coercivity. The more commonly available magnets being adhered to metal. Alnico magnets produce magnetic field strength are e...
Sample of strontium titanite as tausonite

Strontium titanate is an oxide of strontium

Strontium titanate is an oxide of strontium is considered extremely brittle with a conchoidal fracture. The name tausonite was given in a Russian geochemist in honour of Lev Vladimirovich Tauson. Synthetic strontium titanate has a specific resistivit...
Superlubricity

Superlubricity is a regime of motion, a state of low friction

Superlubricity is a regime of motion, a state of low friction be achieved by different mechanisms, is invented recently term in tribology. This definition requires also clarification and further discussion. Such effects were described also theoretica...
Rayleigh-Taylor instability

Morse potential is a better approximation

The Morse potential named after physicist Philip M. Morse. Interatomic interaction model is a better approximation than the QHO for the vibrational structure of the molecule, accounts also for the anharmonicity of real bonds. The force constant of th...
Black hole information paradox

Black hole information paradox is a puzzle

The black hole information paradox is a puzzle started in 1967. The evolution of the wave function is determined by unitarity and a unitary operator. Reversibility refers that the evolution operator to the fact. Everything hit the singularity within ...
Mixed reality

Mixed reality has a nice article

Mixed reality takes place in the virtual world and the physical world, augmented reality is changing the way, the industry. The first immersive mixed reality system providing enveloping sight, touch and sound, the Virtual Fixtures platform was the Vi...
Granular convection

Granular convection is described sometimes as the Brazil nut effect

Granular convection is described sometimes as the Brazil nut effect, has been probed by the use of MRI, is exemplified also by debris flow. The phenomenon is known also as the muesli effect, is related to Parrondo's paradox. Experimental conditions h...
Shock tube

Shock tube is an instrument

A shock wave be generated by the buildup of high pressures by a small explosion, increases pressure and the temperature creates pressure rise and a near instantaneous temperature. Observations be made behind the incident front in the flow. The corres...
Calcium fluoride

Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound

Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound over a broad range with the formula CaF, occurs as the mineral fluorite, reduces the need. Perfectly packed crystalline samples are colorless the mineral. The same crystal structure is found with formula AB ...
WollastoniteUSGOV

Wollastonite is a calcium inosilicate mineral

Wollastonite is a calcium inosilicate mineral is used primarily in friction products in ceramics, competes also as kaolin with rocks and several nonfibrous minerals, form a series of solid solutions in the system CaSiO. Wollastonite be produced also ...
Full-sky image derived from nine years

Inflationary epoch was the period

Physical cosmology was the period in the evolution of the early universe. This rapid expansion increased the linear dimensions of the early universe of at least 10 by a factor, explains various properties of the current universe. The rapid expansion ...
Spontaneous parametric down-conversion

Spontaneous parametric down-conversion is an important process

Spontaneous parametric down-conversion is an important process in quantum optics. SPDC is stimulated by the hence photon pairs and random vacuum fluctuations, was applied first to experiments, allows for the creation of optical fields. The conversion...
Asher Peres

Asher Peres was an Israeli physicist, a pioneer

The book includes a FORTRAN program whether a list of vectors for testing. Absolutely nothing happens at Bob's location, died in Israel in Haifa. This article discusses the intimate relationship between relativity theory and information theory betwee...
Professor Lene Hau in her laboratory at Harvard

Lene Hau is a Danish physicist

Lene Vestergaard Hau is a Danish physicist from Aarhus University with a PhD, Taming Light with Cold Atoms Invited feature article, Bound. Later work based on these experiments, has involved research between nanoscopic scale systems and ultracold ato...
CMS Higgs-event

Neutrino oscillation is a quantum, mechanical phenomenon

Neutrino oscillation is a quantum, mechanical phenomenon, a function of the ratio L, E arises between mass eigenstates and the flavor from a mixture. A great deal of evidence has been collected over a wide range of neutrino energies from many sources...
William E. Caswell

William E. Caswell was a physicist

William Edward Caswell was a physicist was born in Boston on 1947 06 22. Caswell did work in quantum gauge theory, punch cards coincided with the synthesis of gauge symmetry, did significant work, postdoctoral research at Brown universities and Stanf...
Geometrical frustration

Geometrical frustration has been introduced by Gerard Toulouse

A consequence of the frustration result at zero temperature. The term frustration has been introduced by Gerard Toulouse. Early work includes a study of the Ising model with nearest-neighbor spins on a triangular lattice. Spin glasses is augmented in...
Frost heaving

Frost heaving is during freezing conditions

Frost heaving is during freezing conditions, requires a frost-susceptible soil, a continual supply of water. The weight of overlying soil restrains vertical growth of the ice. Taber showed in frost heaving that the vertical displacement of soil, demo...
Deep-level transient spectroscopy

Deep-level transient spectroscopy is an experimental tool

Deep-level transient spectroscopy is an experimental tool. DLTS investigates defects in a space charge region of a simple electronic device. The measurement process is disturbed by a voltage pulse. This voltage pulse reduces the electric field in the...